ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop

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Presentation to qualitative data analysis processes and software presented at the ISEOR-Academy of Management conference in Lyon France, June 2010.

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ISEOR-AoM QDAS Workshop

  1. 1. Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research: A Practical Perspective of a Study Supported by Qualitative Data Analysis Software from Inception to Completion.<br />ISEOR-RMD Joint Conference<br />Lyon France<br />June, 2011 <br />Dr. Joseph B. Baugh, PMP<br />Baugh Group LTD<br />University of Phoenix<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Why do Qualitative Research?<br />Who will benefit from Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS)<br />Data Collection and Analysis Processes<br />Describing QDAS<br />QDAS (Atlas.ti®) demonstration<br />Assigning primary documents<br />Using codes and memos<br />Producing reports<br />Q & A<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />2<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />
  3. 3. Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research<br />Coursework alone may not effectively prepare applied researchers.<br />QDAS formerly disdained by many researchers (Morison & Moir, 1998).<br />QDAS now acceptable and desirable<br />Frees up time once spent in data management and encoding (Blank, 2004; Mangabeira, Lee & Fielding, 2004). <br />Allows more time to understand the data, enhance analysis, improve the impact of the research.<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Why Use QDAS for Research?<br />Unlike quantitative research with its heavy reliance on Likert surveys and other sterile instruments as primary data collection tools, qualitative research requires the use of a variety of field methods (Eaves, 2001; Robson, 2002) to capture rich data in its native context that will allow the researcher to adequately explore particular phenomena within the native environment and draw credible conclusions from the data. <br />QDAS supports and enables exploration.<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />4<br />
  5. 5. QDAS Researcher Populations<br />Baugh, Hallcom, and Harris (2009) identified three potential user groups<br />Academic researchers<br />Ex: Classic theory-driven researchers w/ extensive research experience<br />Experienced in sound research methodologies, develop robust studies and results<br />Market researchers <br />Ex: Applied researchers w/ some research experience<br />Studies driven by specific business constraints, which may strain study credibility<br />Software adopters<br />Ex: Project managers w/ little research experience<br />Adopters of specific tools, may not use scientifically.<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Qualitative Research Continua<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Qualitative Data Collection Tools & Techniques<br />Interviews<br />Focus groups<br />Facilitated workshops<br />Group creativity techniques<br />Questionnaires <br />Surveys<br />Observations<br />Documentation<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Data Collection: Field Studies<br />Get out in the field to collect data and study social phenomena in native environment<br />Develop rapport with participants<br />Be aware of researcher biases<br />Researcher affects the case or the case affects the researcher (Miles & Huberman, 1994)<br />Preconceived notions may skew analyses (Malterud, 2001; Robson, 2002)<br />Seek disconfirming evidence (Creswell, 1998; Eisenhardt, 1989; Sadler, 1981)<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Data Collection: Questionnaires<br /><ul><li>Easy to study specific phenomena
  10. 10. Purposeful sampling
  11. 11. Easy to deploy</li></ul>Cheaper than a field study<br />Internet questionnaires don’t require transcription services<br />No travel expenses<br />Minimal cost for Internet survey services<br /><ul><li>Not as much fun as a field study
  12. 12. Response rates can be problematic</li></ul>Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />9<br />
  13. 13. Data Collection Processes<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />10<br />
  14. 14. Managing the Data<br />"Qualitative data can easily become overwhelming, even in small projects . . . During and after data collection, you have to reduce the data mountain through the production of summaries and abstracts, coding, writing memos, etc." (Robson, 2002, p. 476)<br />How can we accomplish this recommended reduction as we collect and analyze the raw data?<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />11<br />
  15. 15. Qualitative Data Analysis Software<br />Encode qualitative data<br />Allow multiple levels of encoding<br />Develop emerging themes and patterns<br />Attach memos to data segments<br />Develop reports<br />Use refined data to create narrative in the words of the participants (Creswell, 1998) who lived the experiences (Denzin, 2001; Kvale, 1996).<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />12<br />
  16. 16. Using QDAS in the Wild<br />Use Qualitative Data Analysis Software (QDAS) to reduce the raw data to common themes and patterns through encoding.<br />Provisional start list (Miles & Huberman, 1994)<br />Create new codes as themes emerge<br />Differentiate multiple levels of codes<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />13<br />
  17. 17. Data Analysis Processes<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />14<br />QDAS is very useful for these processes<br />
  18. 18. QDAS Caveats<br />QDAS can support well-designed and implemented studies:<br />QDAS is very effective at organizing, managing, and tracking data, which allows the researcher to spend more time contemplating the data.<br />Word frequency counts are not data analyses, they are just hints of the themes and patterns hidden in the raw data, the researcher still must dig them out.<br />Remember that QDAS is just a tool, it can’t - and shouldn’t - do your thinking for you. (Morison & Moir, 1998).<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />15<br />
  19. 19. QDAS Packages<br />Several popular programs are available to support qualitative data analysis:<br />Atlas.ti from www.atlasti.com<br />Ethno 2 from www.indiana.edu/%7Esocpsy/ESA/<br />Ethnograph from www.qualisresearch.com<br />NVivo from www.qsrinternational.com<br />Qualrus from www.ideaworks.com/qualrus/index.html<br />Most 3rd Generation QDAS packages have similar features, perhaps different naming conventions<br />This demonstration will focus on Atlas.ti<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />16<br />
  20. 20. QDAS Example: Atlas.tiAssigning Primary Documents<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />17<br />
  21. 21. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Encoding Data<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />18<br />
  22. 22. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Managing Memos<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />19<br />
  23. 23. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Generating Code Reports<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />20<br />
  24. 24. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Generating Code Reports<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />21<br />
  25. 25. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Generating Code Reports<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />22<br />
  26. 26. QDAS Example: Atlas.ti®Developing Networks <br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />23<br />
  27. 27. Using QDAS in the Wild<br />Develop a thick description of the phenomena under study (Denzin, 2001; Geertz, 1973).<br />Use participant quotes to place the findings back into context in the words of the participants (Creswell, 1998; Stake, 1995) <br />Develop the final report.<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />24<br />
  28. 28. Conclusion<br />Qualitative research studies can help uncover complex social phenomena that are beyond the reach of classic quantitative research methodologies<br />Require a scholarly approach to develop credible results<br />Use multiple tools and techniques to collect data<br />Use QDAS to ease the pain of analyzing a mountain of data, which can improve the impact of qualitative research<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />25<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />
  29. 29. Questions<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />26<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />drjoe(at)baughgroup.com<br />
  30. 30. References<br />Baugh, J. B., Hallcom, A. S., & Harris, M. E. (2010a). Computer assisted qualitative data analysis software: A practical perspective for applied research. Revista del InstitutoInternacional de Costos, (6), 69-81.<br />Baugh, J. B., Hallcom, A. S., & Harris, M. E. (2010b, June). Changes that make a difference: Attaining a PhD while maintaining an active life. Proceedings of the ISEOR – Academy of Management International Conference and Doctoral Consortium on Organizational Development and Change (Vol. 1, CD-ROM). Lyon France: ISEOR.<br />Blank, G. (2004). Teaching qualitative data analysis to graduate students. Social Science Computer Review, 22(2), 187-196.<br />Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among the five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.<br />Denzin, N. K. (2001). Interpretive interactionism (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.<br />Eaves, Y. D. (2001). A synthesis technique for grounded theory data analysis. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35, 654-663. <br />Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. In A. M. Huberman & M. B. Miles (Eds.), The qualitative researcher's companion (pp. 5-35). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. <br />Geertz, C. (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.<br />Kvale, S. (1996). Interviews: An introduction to qualitative research interviewing. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. <br />Malterud, K. (2001, August 11). Qualitative research: Standards, challenges, and guidelines. The Lancet, 358, 483-488.<br />Mangabeira, W. C., Lee, R. M., & Fielding, N. G. (2004). Computers and qualitative research: Adoption, use, and representation. Social Science Computer Review, 22(2), 167-178.<br />Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.<br />Morison, M., & Moir, J. (1998). The role of computer software in the analysis of qualitative data: Efficient clerk, research assistant, or Trojan horse? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 28, 106-116.<br />Robson, C. (2002). Real world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner-researchers (2nd ed.). Malden MA: Blackwell Publishing.<br />Sadler, D. R. (1981). Intuitive data processing as a potential source of bias in naturalistic evaluations. In A. M. Huberman & M. B. Miles (Eds.), The qualitative researcher's companion (pp. 123-135). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.<br />Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.<br />Improving the Impact of Qualitative Research - 2011 ISEOR-RMD, Lyon France<br />27<br />© 2011 Joseph B. Baugh<br />

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