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Mr. Hodge's Powerpoint on Feudalism

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Hodge powerpoint

  2. 2. Feudalism<br />Within 100 years of Charlemagne’s death<br />Large-scale government in Europe had disappeared<br />By 900’s most Europeans were government by small, local leaders<br />Most often by lords<br />The political organization these leaders represented is known as feudalism<br />
  3. 3. Feudalism<br />The system<br />A powerful noble granted land to a lesser noble<br />The actual land remained with the noble who made the grant<br />Grant allowed the lesser noble to maintain himself and his family<br />Lesser noble promised loyalty, military assistance and other services to the lord who granted the land<br />
  4. 4. FEUDALISM <br />The person who granted the land was a lord<br />The grant of land was known as a fief<br />The person who received the fief was a vassal<br />The vassal could further grant this land to others such as knights<br />The vassal was now a lord as well<br />Primogeniture – system of inheritance from father to eldest son<br />
  5. 5. FEUDALISM<br />Women’s rights regarding legal property were limited<br />Women could have fiefs in their dowry<br />When they married the land passed to their husband<br />Women usually gained control of the property if her husband died<br />
  6. 6. FEUDALISM<br />Kings also bound by the customs and obligations of feudalism<br />The medieval church was part of the system<br />Owned vast amounts of land<br />Had many vassals who were granted fiefs in return for military service and protection<br />
  7. 7. FEUDALISM <br />Warfare – common during the Middle Ages<br />Fights between feudal lords, or vassals and lords<br />These were local conflicts that include only a few nobles and their knights<br />A few were large scale events involving large regions and were very destructive <br />
  8. 8. FEUDALISM<br />Knights wore armor in battle and were heavily armed<br />Armor<br />Chain mail – small inter-locking metal links stitched to a knee length shirt<br />Iron helmet and carried a sword, a large shield and a lance<br />Later overlapping metal plates replaced metal links<br />
  9. 9. FEUDALISM<br />Knights had to have a crane lift them on their horses – Clydesdales<br />Wars for nobles meant an opportunity for glory and wealth<br />For most people war caused great suffering and hardship<br />
  10. 10. FEUDALSIM<br />The church tried to limit hardship by issuing several degrees banning violence near churches <br />Forbade violence against<br />Cattle and agricultural equipment<br />Clergy, women, merchants and pilgrims<br />Fighting on weekends and holy days<br />Private wars continue until kings became strong<br />
  11. 11. FEUDALISM<br />Feudal justice<br />Trail decided in one of three ways<br />Trial by battle; could be a duel between accuser and accused or their representative<br />Compurgation; oath taking by witnesses<br />Trial by ordeal; determined on how the accused survived the ordeal<br />
  12. 12. THE MANORIAL SYSTEM<br />Manorial System shaped the economy of Europe during the Middle Ages<br />Manors were large farming estates<br />Manor houses, cultivated lands, woodlands, pastures and villages<br />Provided central authority and organized trade<br />People were self-sufficient<br />Produced food, clothing and shelter<br />Purchased iron, salt, wine and manufactured goods<br />
  13. 13. The Manorial System<br />A lord and several peasant families shared the land of the manor<br />Lord kept 1/3 of the manor for himself (Domain)<br />Peasants farmed the remaining 2/3’s<br />In return they gave the lord<br />Some crops<br />Helped farm his land<br />Provided other services and paid many kinds of taxes<br />
  14. 14. THE MANORIAL SYSTEM<br />Manor village located on a stream or river which provided waterpower for the village mill<br />For safety small cluster of homes near the manor house or castle<br />Land surrounding the manor house<br />Village<br />Vegetable plots and cultivated fields<br />Pastures and forests<br />Only two of the three fields would be planted<br />
  15. 15. THE MANORIAL SYSTEM<br />Peasant life<br />Spend long hours at backbreaking work in the fields<br />See primary source on p 297<br />Called serfs – could not leave the land without permission<br />Meals<br />Black bread<br />Lentils<br />Some veggies<br />Ale<br />Rarely had meat<br />
  16. 16. THE MANORIAL SYSTEM<br />Peasant life<br />Life spans short<br />Disease<br />Starvation<br />Frequent warfare<br />Most lived, worked and died in the village they were born in<br />
  17. 17. THE MAORIAL SYSTEM <br />Nobles’ lifestyles<br />Generally did not live in luxury as one might think<br />Castle<br />Usually built on hills<br />Early structures were made of wood – later stone<br />If on flat land a moat was constructed to protect it<br />Keep<br />Main part of castle<br />Lord lived here<br />tower<br />
  18. 18. THE MANORIAL SYSTEM <br />Nobles’ lifestyles<br />Lord or head of a peasant family depended on his wife and children for help<br />Marriage viewed as a way to advance one’s fortune<br />Lord would provide dowries<br />Among peasants children were often welcomed as a source of labor<br />
  19. 19. THE MANORIAL SYSTEM<br />Chivalry – a code of conduct which brought changes to the Middle Ages<br />System of rules that dictated knights’ behavior towards others<br />Courageous fighter<br />Loyal to his friends<br />Fight fairly<br />Be courteous to women and less powerful<br />Treat conquered foes gallantly<br />Only required to extend courtesy to his own class<br />Could be rude and bully others<br />