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Exaptations are creative reconfiguration of technology by their users, either as a by product of a previous function (co-option) or as

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  1. 1. Exaptive Innovation <ul><li>and creative epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Jb Labrune - 2010 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Phd Work 2007 <ul><li>Children and Creative Technologies, an exaptive phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Answering the question: Why children rarely use objects according to the rules edicted by their designers ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. More questions <ul><li>What is the nature of creative re-configurations ? </li></ul><ul><li>Are these modifications similar in digital and physical spaces ? </li></ul><ul><li>How to help researchers to understand creative re-configurations ? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Empirical Study <ul><li>Grounded Theory ( Glaser and Strauss, 1967 ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Situated Action (Suchman, 1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SocioMaterial Reconfigurations (Orlikowski, 1987) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-Adaptation, Triangulation (Mackay, 1990) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Triangulation <ul><li>Mackay, 1997 (hci, design, natural sciences) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.lri.fr/~mackay/pdffiles/DIS97.Triangulate.pdf </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Terrains
  7. 7. Findings e1
  8. 8. Findings e2
  9. 9. Findings e3
  10. 10. Findings e4
  11. 11. Findings e5
  12. 12. Findings e6
  13. 13. Thesis Child-Machine Interaction is an exaptive phenomenon
  14. 14. Exaptation <ul><li>Flying is an exaptation </li></ul><ul><li>A secondary adaptation from thermic regulation evolution </li></ul>
  15. 15. Examples
  16. 16. Gould, Vrba <ul><li>A character, previously shaped by natural selection for a particular function (an adaptation), is coopted for a new use—cooptation. (2) A character whose origin cannot be ascribed to the direct action of natural selection (a nonaptation), is coopted for a current use—cooptation. Gould and Vrba (1982, Table 1) </li></ul>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exaptation
  17. 17. Spandrels <ul><li>Lewontin and Gould (1979) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/205/1161/581 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gould (1997) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The exaptive excellence of spandrels as a term and prototype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.pnas.org/content/94/20/10750.abstract?sid=c80b8cc0-4a00-4bb6-ae92-3e9897ef5da5 </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Spandrels <ul><li>By-Product of Functional evolution, or design iteration </li></ul><ul><li>Morphogenetic By-Products </li></ul>Dorsoventral Pattern Formation in Graphosoma Lineatum
  19. 19. Open Spaces <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><li>By-Products </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity and Paradox of Openess </li></ul><ul><li>Designing vs Non-design (and nature vs designer pace) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Epigenetic Landscape http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epigenetics Conrad Hal Waddington - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conrad_Hal_ Waddington
  21. 21. IdeaGarden 2010 http://web.media.mit.edu/~labrune/igarden/igarden-lg-final.ogv
  22. 22. Creative Documentation <ul><li>Capturing Iterations vs capturing context </li></ul><ul><li>Reflecting on intention, capture and reflection itself </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring (Surveillance) vs Joint Attention </li></ul>
  23. 23. Inspiration <ul><li>Reggio Emilia for adults </li></ul><ul><li>New Tools for Creativity support but also for creative reflection on documentation process </li></ul><ul><li>Debate, Co-Evolution, non-hegemonic process in design and its cultural context </li></ul>
  24. 24. Creativity Research Tools <ul><li>Specialised vs Context </li></ul><ul><li>Visual documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Anthropology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visual psychology ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visual epistemology ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>visual phenomenology ? </li></ul></ul>Free Camera ? >>> free culture / research http://www.opencamera.cc / http://cinema.elphel.com / >> anthropology.elphel ??
  25. 25. Open-source camera <ul><li>How to make (almost) anything 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/MIT/863.09/people/labrune/index.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fabbable </li></ul><ul><li>programmable </li></ul><ul><li>open-source </li></ul>
  26. 26. DIY Trend <ul><li>Ubiquitous Kwnoledge (Digital, Citizen science, Magazines, workshops, conferences) </li></ul><ul><li>New places of production and understanding of knwoledge (Fablabs, Dorkbot, DIY communities around the world) </li></ul><ul><li>DIY programming cultral probes, technological probes </li></ul>
  27. 27. References <ul><li>The Ambiguity of Play [Brian Sutton-Smith, 1997] </li></ul><ul><li>CST: Creativity Support Tools [Shneiderman, 2005] </li></ul><ul><li>Edith Ackermann &quot;Perspective-Taking and Object-Construction” In Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World (Kafai, Y. & and Resnick, M. Eds.). Chap. 2, pp. 25-37. Northdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>Gould, Stephen Jay, and Elizabeth S. Vrba (1982), &quot;Exaptation — a missing term in the science of form,&quot; Paleobiology 8 (1): 4–15. </li></ul>