ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS BASED ON VITAL STATISTICS
PhD(Foods And Nutrition)
ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL
STATUS BASED ON VITAL STATISTICS
Malnutrition influences morbidity, mortality rates for various
diseases. Maternal and perinatal mortality rates, life expectancy
and other health statistics. Vital statistic is therefore considered as
indirect indicators of the nutritional status of a community. As for
morbidity and mortality are concerned, malnutrition has its most
marked general ill-effect among young children and pregnant
It denotes the data and analytical methods for
describing the vital events occurring in the
community. The Raw data can be obtained from
sample survey, population census, vital statistics
registers, hospital records, and municipalities.
It includes the counts of births, deaths, illness,
various rates and ratios that may be computed from
Defined as number of deaths per 1000 estimated mid year
population in one year.
MR= No of death during year x1000
Mid year population
Age-specific mortality rates: Some types of malnutrition
have a particularly high incidence at certain ages, so that
the mortality rates at this specific age-period have been
suggested as indicators of the incidence of certain types
Cause specific mortality rates: Mortality due to special
cause e.g. death due to diarrheal diseases is called cause
Measures of Mortality
Maternal mortality rate:
Number of deaths pertaining to child births per
1000 live births.
MMR= No of deaths during pregnancy x1000
Total live births during the year
Infant mortality rate:
Number of babies dying in the first year of life per
1000 live births.
IMR= No of deaths under one year of age x1000
Total live birth in one year
Neonatal mortality rate: Deaths occurring within 4
weeks or 28 days of birth.
NMR= No of deaths of babies under 28 days of age
Total live births
Peri-natal mortality rate: The number of deaths of
infants under 1 month and still births per 1000
Toddler Mortality rate: This is the number of
deaths between 1 to 4 years per 1000
toddlers born. The manifestations and effects of
malnutrition are well known to be severe in6
Post natal neonatal mortality rate:
Deaths rate of infant dying from 28 days up to 1 year
PNMR= No of deaths of infants age between 28 days to
Total live births x 1000
Still birth rate:
Death of fetus occurring after 28 week of
SBR= No of fetal death at 28 week of gestation
No of live births 7
Morbidity : Relates to types and varieties of diseases
one faces or experiences affecting the day to day
activities, like cold, cough, to chronic disease.
Measures of morbidity-
1) Incidence rate- ×100
2) Prevalence rate-
Point prevalence rate= Total no of cases new or old
existing at a point of time x 100
Population expose to risk at that time
Period prevalence rate= Total no of persons who are
sick some time during a particular time x 100
Average no of persons expose to risk at that period of time
Crude birth rate= No of live birth during a year x1000
mid year population
Assessment of morbidity rates
1. Analysis of birth and death records:
Records of births and deaths should be consulted,
these may me kept by local authority. If these are
complete and accurately kept, it may be possible
to calculate the infant mortality rate and 1-4 year
mortality rate, and death rate in various age-
2. Calculation from census figures:
This will be practicable only if a careful census
has been repeated at intervals in the area.
3. Questionnaire at village level: A sample of
mothers may be questioned, the number children
they have had, and the number that has died,
approximate ages at death, cause of death etc.
Advantages of vital statistics-
1. It does not need much human resources.
2. Less time, money, and work is involved.
3. Easy to interpret.
Disadvantages of vital statistics-
1. Sometimes collection of accurate information is not
2. Availability of local statistics and its acceptability by the
public is difficult.
3. Stated cause of death may be quite unreliable.
Srilakshmi. B. (2008). Nutrition Science. 3rd ed. New Delhi, New
Age International Publishers. p:354-356.
Park.K (2013).Park Textbook of Preventive and Social
Medicine. 22nd ed. Jabalpur. M/s Banarsidas Bhanot
Publishers. p. 362