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  1. 1. Presenter Jaspreet Kaur PhD(Foods And Nutrition) Presentation on ASSESSMENT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS BASED ON VITAL STATISTICS 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Malnutrition influences morbidity, mortality rates for various diseases. Maternal and perinatal mortality rates, life expectancy and other health statistics. Vital statistic is therefore considered as indirect indicators of the nutritional status of a community. As for morbidity and mortality are concerned, malnutrition has its most marked general ill-effect among young children and pregnant women. 2
  3. 3. VITAL STATISTICS It denotes the data and analytical methods for describing the vital events occurring in the community. The Raw data can be obtained from sample survey, population census, vital statistics registers, hospital records, and municipalities. It includes the counts of births, deaths, illness, various rates and ratios that may be computed from them. . 3
  4. 4. MORTALITY RATES Defined as number of deaths per 1000 estimated mid year population in one year. MR= No of death during year x1000 Mid year population  Age-specific mortality rates: Some types of malnutrition have a particularly high incidence at certain ages, so that the mortality rates at this specific age-period have been suggested as indicators of the incidence of certain types of malnutrition.  Cause specific mortality rates: Mortality due to special cause e.g. death due to diarrheal diseases is called cause specific mortality. 4
  5. 5. Measures of Mortality Maternal mortality rate: Number of deaths pertaining to child births per 1000 live births. MMR= No of deaths during pregnancy x1000 Total live births during the year Infant mortality rate: Number of babies dying in the first year of life per 1000 live births. IMR= No of deaths under one year of age x1000 Total live birth in one year 5
  6. 6. Neonatal mortality rate: Deaths occurring within 4 weeks or 28 days of birth. NMR= No of deaths of babies under 28 days of age x1000 Total live births Peri-natal mortality rate: The number of deaths of infants under 1 month and still births per 1000 total births. PNMR= Toddler Mortality rate: This is the number of deaths between 1 to 4 years per 1000 toddlers born. The manifestations and effects of malnutrition are well known to be severe in6
  7. 7. Post natal neonatal mortality rate: Deaths rate of infant dying from 28 days up to 1 year of age. PNMR= No of deaths of infants age between 28 days to 1yr Total live births x 1000 Still birth rate: Death of fetus occurring after 28 week of gestation. SBR= No of fetal death at 28 week of gestation x1000 No of live births 7
  8. 8. Morbidity : Relates to types and varieties of diseases one faces or experiences affecting the day to day activities, like cold, cough, to chronic disease. Measures of morbidity- 1) Incidence rate- ×100 2) Prevalence rate- Point prevalence rate= Total no of cases new or old existing at a point of time x 100 Population expose to risk at that time 8
  9. 9. Period prevalence rate= Total no of persons who are sick some time during a particular time x 100 Average no of persons expose to risk at that period of time Crude birth rate= No of live birth during a year x1000 mid year population 9
  10. 10. Assessment of morbidity rates 1. Analysis of birth and death records: Records of births and deaths should be consulted, these may me kept by local authority. If these are complete and accurately kept, it may be possible to calculate the infant mortality rate and 1-4 year mortality rate, and death rate in various age- groups. 10
  11. 11. 2. Calculation from census figures: This will be practicable only if a careful census has been repeated at intervals in the area. 3. Questionnaire at village level: A sample of mothers may be questioned, the number children they have had, and the number that has died, approximate ages at death, cause of death etc. 11
  12. 12. Advantages of vital statistics- 1. It does not need much human resources. 2. Less time, money, and work is involved. 3. Easy to interpret. Disadvantages of vital statistics- 1. Sometimes collection of accurate information is not possible. 2. Availability of local statistics and its acceptability by the public is difficult. 3. Stated cause of death may be quite unreliable. 12
  13. 13. REFERENCES  Srilakshmi. B. (2008). Nutrition Science. 3rd ed. New Delhi, New Age International Publishers. p:354-356.  Park.K (2013).Park Textbook of Preventive and Social Medicine. 22nd ed. Jabalpur. M/s Banarsidas Bhanot Publishers. p. 362 13