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Symphony No 40 - Mozart KEY FEATURESThis is quite a long work for you to learn. Theanalysis in the text book is very good.Here, you will find information in smaller chunks!
InstrumentationFirst – Remember the Classical Orchestra from General Features? This piece is a little different! Clarinets. Originally not in the piece, but Mozart added them later. They were a new invention and he loved the new sound so much he rewrote some pieces to include them…includin g Messiah by Handel!
See GENERAL FEATURES Structure Mozart uses SONATA FORM to build the structure of this movement. This is a common way of doing things in the CLASSICAL PERIODWhat happens in each section will be covered in other slides Section Bars Keys used First Subject 1-20 G Minor Bridge Passage 20-44 Modulates to Bb Major (relative Short major)endingsection Second Subject 44-72 Bb Major Codetta 73-100 Bb –ends in G minor Explained in HARMONY/ Development 101-164 Gmin/E Min/A TONALITY min/Dmin/Gmin /C/F/Bb Recapitulation 164-260 Gminor Coda 260-299 G minor
Harmony/TonalitySonata Form is all about the relationship between keys.Most common is the relationship between the TONIC (chord I)and the Dominant (chord V) but in a minor key it often therelationship between tonic and its’ RELATIVE MAJOR key G minor Bb MajorWhich bits are in G Minor?• 1st Subject Which bits are in Bb•Start of Development Major?•Recapitulation •2nd Subject•Coda •Codetta (but finishes in G min)
What happens in the development? The DEVELOPMENT is where a composer can experiment. Mozart goes through 7 keys in this sections. Let’s see how they are related (read clockwise from the top)…he reaches Bb major Gm Relative minor of the tonic– the relative major of major (G Major)G minor – and links Bbmaj Tonic Emthis to the start of theRECAPITULATION ,in the TONIC of G Minor Fmaj Am Mozart then uses keys that are 4 notes Cmaj Dm apart – Gm until….. Called a “cycle of 4ths”
Melody There are 2 melodies used in this piece. They are known as SUBJECTS in Sonata Form1st Subject Descending Sequence Repeats the first phrase, one note lower Look out for the repeated F# in this sequence Played by violins in Octaves, accompanied by quaver chords in violas
2nd Subject In Bb Major – relative major! Woodwind link passage woodwind link and take over the tuneNotice the CHROMATIC Shared between strings and woodwind, this ismovement in the melody the first example played by the strings. The use of semitones in the melody creates a PATHETIQUE mood.
Try and learn the notes to these melodies, because….The skill being tested is your ability to HEAR the missing notes and correctly identifythem. But….a few minutes work could mean that you remember them.
Texture Is mostly Melody dominated Hompohony (Homophonic) Look at the example from the first subjectmelody Violas and Cello/Bass play G minor chords. Giving the HOMPOHONIC texture
Other Textures include IMITATION and CANONSee example from bars 81-84However, it never reaches the same complexity as the polyphony in Baroque music
More Examples of Homphonic TextureBars –34-43 (including a strong DOMINANT PEDAL)Bars 88-100