Who Set the Moose Loose?<br />Kristi Hannam<br />SUNY-Geneseo<br />1<br />
	It was the summer of 1993. Paul had just finished his first year of grad school, and was excited to start researching bir...
Paul’s primary question for his research was: What aspects of the ecosystem most strongly affect the diversity of bird spe...
4<br />
5<br />
The food web Paul created looked like this. <br />Compare your food web to Paul’s.<br />Grasses<br />Rabbits<br />Elk<br /...
If we rearrange the food web to make trophic levels more apparent, the food web looks like this: <br />SECONDARY 	Hawks   ...
This kind of food web can be referred to as a “connectedness” web – it focuses on the feeding relationships among all the ...
A “functional” food web emphasizes strong interactions which alter population growth rates:<br />SECONDARY 	Hawks     Coyo...
A functional food web emphasizing what the influence of other populations on growth rates of SONGBIRD populations might lo...
Remember, Paul’s goal was to determine what most strongly influenced the bird populations<br />Top-down control of product...
Bottom-up control of productivity<br />	The abundance of organisms at a trophic level is determined by the rate of food pr...
Paul investigated factors that might explain songbird populations in his study sites.<br />Paul set up multiple study site...
Some results from Paul’s first year of study<br />What can you conclude from this data?<br />14<br />
The summary data didn’t reflect differences Paul thought existed between his sites, so he looked more closely at his first...
Some interactions between organisms in a biological community are not feeding relationships.  <br />SECONDARY 	Hawks     C...
Some interactions between organisms in a biological community are not feeding relationships.  Look at Paul’s data & the fo...
Paul thinks there may be other interactions that may affect the songbird populations. <br />18<br />
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The Moose is Loose

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The Moose is Loose

  1. 1. Who Set the Moose Loose?<br />Kristi Hannam<br />SUNY-Geneseo<br />1<br />
  2. 2. It was the summer of 1993. Paul had just finished his first year of grad school, and was excited to start researching bird communities in riparian habitats of the Grand Teton / Yellowstone ecosystem.<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Paul’s primary question for his research was: What aspects of the ecosystem most strongly affect the diversity of bird species found there?<br /> He started by surveying the biodiversity in riparian habitats so he could understand the biological community the birds live in and the kinds of birds found there.<br />3<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />
  5. 5. 5<br />
  6. 6. The food web Paul created looked like this. <br />Compare your food web to Paul’s.<br />Grasses<br />Rabbits<br />Elk<br />Mule Deer<br />Moose<br />Aspen<br />Songbirds<br />Willow Trees<br />Insects<br />Beaver<br />6<br />
  7. 7. If we rearrange the food web to make trophic levels more apparent, the food web looks like this: <br />SECONDARY Hawks Coyotes Songbirds <br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Moose Elk Deer Beaver Insects Rabbit<br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Willows Aspen<br />PRODUCERS<br />Grasses<br />7<br />
  8. 8. This kind of food web can be referred to as a “connectedness” web – it focuses on the feeding relationships among all the organisms:<br />SECONDARY Hawks Coyotes Songbirds <br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Moose Elk Deer Beaver Insects Rabbit<br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Willows Aspen<br />PRODUCERS<br />Grasses<br />8<br />
  9. 9. A “functional” food web emphasizes strong interactions which alter population growth rates:<br />SECONDARY Hawks Coyotes Songbirds <br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Moose Elk Deer Beaver Insects Rabbit<br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Willows Aspen<br />PRODUCERS<br />Grasses<br />9<br />
  10. 10. A functional food web emphasizing what the influence of other populations on growth rates of SONGBIRD populations might look like:<br />SECONDARYHawks Coyotes Songbirds <br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Moose Elk Deer Beaver Insects Rabbit<br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Willows Aspen<br />PRODUCERS<br />Grasses<br />10<br />
  11. 11. Remember, Paul’s goal was to determine what most strongly influenced the bird populations<br />Top-down control of productivity<br />“The Earth is Green”<br />Carnivores depress herbivore populations that would otherwise consume most of the vegetation.<br />Trophic Cascade<br />Changes in abundances of organisms at one trophic level can influence energy flow at multiple trophic levels.<br />11<br />
  12. 12. Bottom-up control of productivity<br /> The abundance of organisms at a trophic level is determined by the rate of food production for them to eat<br />Increasing the availability of <br />limiting resources will <br />increase the abundance of <br />primary producers. This in turn<br />can increase trophic levels above the producers.<br />12<br />
  13. 13. Paul investigated factors that might explain songbird populations in his study sites.<br />Paul set up multiple study sites:<br />Three riparian areas inside Yellowstone National Park (YNP).<br />Three riparian areas outside YNP.<br />He started by examining population sizes of songbirds, hawks, moose, insects, and willows.<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Some results from Paul’s first year of study<br />What can you conclude from this data?<br />14<br />
  15. 15. The summary data didn’t reflect differences Paul thought existed between his sites, so he looked more closely at his first year data. What conclusions about species interactions can you draw from this data?<br />15<br />
  16. 16. Some interactions between organisms in a biological community are not feeding relationships. <br />SECONDARY Hawks Coyotes Songbirds <br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Moose Elk Deer Beaver Insects Rabbit<br />CONSUMERS<br />PRIMARY Willows Aspen<br />PRODUCERS<br />Grasses<br />16<br />
  17. 17. Some interactions between organisms in a biological community are not feeding relationships. Look at Paul’s data & the food web – what are some possible non-feeding relationships in this community?<br />Willows provide habitat for insects.<br />Willows provide nest sites for birds.<br />Moose waste adds nutrients to soil for the willows.<br />Grasses provide material for bird and rabbit nests.<br />17<br />
  18. 18. Paul thinks there may be other interactions that may affect the songbird populations. <br />18<br />

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