Honors Biology - Photosynthesis

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Honors Biology - Photosynthesis

  1. 1. Photosynthesis:Life from Light and Air 2007-
  2. 2. Energy needs of life  All life needs a constant input of energy  Heterotrophs (Animals)  get their energy from “eating others”consumers  eat food = other organisms = organic molecules  make energy through respiration  Autotrophs (Plants)  produce their own energy (from “self”)  convert energy of sunlightproducers  build organic molecules (CHO) from CO2  make energy & synthesize sugars through photosynthesis
  3. 3. Plant structure Obtaining raw materials  sunlight  leaves = solar collectors  CO2  stomates = gas exchange  H2O  uptake from roots  nutrients  N, P, K, S, Mg, Fe…  uptake from roots
  4. 4. Chloroplasts cross section absorbleaves of leaf sunlight & CO2 CO2 chloroplasts in plant cell chloroplasts chloroplast contain chlorophyll make energy & sugar
  5. 5. chloroplast + H+ H+ H + H+ H + + H++Plant structure ATP H+ H + H H H thylakoid Chloroplasts  double membrane  stroma outer membrane inner membrane  fluid-filled interior  thylakoid sacs stroma  grana stacks Thylakoid membrane thylakoid contains granum  chlorophyll molecules  electron transport chain  ATP building molecule
  6. 6. Photosynthesis Light reactions  light-dependent reactions  energy conversion reactions  convert solar energy to chemical energy  ATP & NADPH It’s not the Calvin cycle Dark Reactions!  light-independent reactions  sugar building reactions  uses chemical energy (ATP & NADPH) to reduce CO2 & synthesize C6H12O6
  7. 7. chloroplast thylakoid +H+ H+ + H+ H+H + H+H+H + +H H H Light reactions +H+ H+ + H+ H+H + H+H+H + H ATP H+H Electron Transport Chain  uses electrons to pump hydrogens  proteins in organelle membrane  electron acceptors  NADPH  pumps H+ to make ATP
  8. 8. Light Reaction  ETC uses light energy to produce  ATP & NADPH  go to Calvin cycle  Light drives the process  enzyme extracts electrons from H2O & supplies them to chlorophyll  splits H2O  O2 released to atmosphere  and we breathe easier!
  9. 9. ETC of Photosynthesis chlorophyll aPhotosystem II chlorophyll b Photosystem I
  10. 10. The Calvin CycleLife from Air 2007-
  11. 11. Remember what it means to be a plant… Need to produce all organic molecules necessary for growth  carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Need to store chemical energy (ATP) produced from light reactions  in a more stable form  that can be moved around plant  saved for a rainy day carbon + water + energy  glucose + oxygen dioxide 6CO2 + 6H2O + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2 energy
  12. 12. In the light reactions…  Convert solar energy to chemical energy ATP  ATP  energy  NADPH  reducing power  What can we do now?   build stuff !! photosynthesis
  13. 13. From Light reactions to Calvin cycle  Calvin cycle  chloroplast stroma  Need products of light reactions to drive synthesis reactions stroma  ATP  NADPHATP thylakoid
  14. 14. Photosynthesis summary  Light reactions  produced ATP  produced NADPH  consumed H2O  produced O2 as byproduct Calvin cycle  consumed CO2  produced Glucose (sugar)  regenerated ADP  regenerated NADP
  15. 15. Putting it all together light CO2 + H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + O2 H2O CO2sunlight Plants make both:  energy ADP  ATP & NADPH Energy NADP Sugar  sugars Building Building Reactions Reactions NADPH ATP O2 sugars
  16. 16. even though this equation is a bit of a lie…Energy cycle sun it makes a better story Photosynthesis light CO2 + H2O + energy  C6H12O6 + O2 plantsCO2 H2O glucose O2 animals, plants ATP C6H12O6 + O2  energy + CO2 + H2O Cellular Respiration The Great Circle ATP of Life,Mufasa!
  17. 17. Chloroplasts are only in plants animal cells plant cells

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