Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
The Chemistry of Life What are living  creatures made of? Why do we have  to eat?
<ul><li>96% of living organisms is made of:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen (O) </li><...
Molecules of Life <ul><li>Put C, H, O, N together in different  ways to build living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>What are ...
Why do we eat? <ul><li>We eat to take in more of these chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for building materials </li></...
What do we need to eat? <ul><li>Foods to give you more  building blocks  &  more energy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for buil...
<ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of your body is H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is  inorganic   </li></ul><...
How do we make these molecules? <ul><li>We build them! </li></ul>2006-2007
Building large molecules of life <ul><li>Chain together smaller molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building block molecules =...
<ul><li>Small molecules =  building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Bond them together =   polymers </li></ul>Building large orga...
Building important polymers sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar  nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleoti...
How to build large molecules <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building bigger molecules from smaller molecules   </...
How to build a polymer <ul><li>Synthesis   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>joins monomers by “taking” H 2 O out </li></ul></ul><ul><...
How to take large molecules apart <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taking big molecules apart </li></ul></ul><ul><u...
How to break down a polymer <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use  H 2 O  to breakdown polymers  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Example of digestion <ul><li>Starch is digested to glucose </li></ul>starch glucose ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP
Example of synthesis <ul><li>amino acids = building block </li></ul><ul><li>protein = polymer </li></ul>amino acids protei...
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates: Energy molecules OH OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Building block molecules = </li></ul>sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar sugars sugar sugar sugar ...
Carbohydrates <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quick energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy storage </li></ul></u...
Sugars = building blocks  <ul><li>Names for sugars usually end in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
Building carbohydrates <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul>| glucose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | ...
Building carbohydrates <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul>| fructose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide | sucrose (table sugar) 2...
BIG carbohydrates <ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>starch ...
Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage polysaccharide
Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest cellulose hard to digest enzyme enzyme
Cellulose  <ul><li>Cell walls in plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>herbivores can digest cellulose well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Proteins
Proteins: Multipurpose molecules
Proteins  <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skin, hair, fingernails, claws  </li>...
Proteins <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many, many functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul></...
Proteins <ul><li>Building block = </li></ul>variable  group amino acids <ul><li>20 different amino acids </li></ul>amino a...
Amino acid chains <ul><li>Proteins  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide) </li></ul></...
For proteins: SHAPE matters ! <ul><li>Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that’s what happens in th...
Primary (1°) structure <ul><li>Order of amino acids in chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slight change in amino acid sequence ca...
Secondary (2°) structure <ul><li>“ Local folding ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>folding along short sections of polypeptide </li>...
Tertiary (3°) structure <ul><li>“ Whole molecule folding ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interactions between distant amino acids ...
Quaternary (4°) structure <ul><li>More than one polypeptide chain  bonded together   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only then does ...
Protein structure (review) amino acid sequence peptide bonds 1° determined by DNA R groups short 3D segments R groups whol...
It’s SHAPE that matters! <ul><li>Proteins do their jobs, because  of their shape </li></ul><ul><li>Unfolding a protein des...
Lipids: Fats & Oils
<ul><li>Lipids </li></ul>Concentrated energy molecules
Lipids  <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waxes </li>...
Lipids <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy storage   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>very concentrated </li></ul...
Structure of Fat not a chain (polymer) = just a “big fat molecule”
Saturated fats <ul><li>Most animal fats   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid at room  temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limit th...
Unsaturated fats <ul><li>Plant, vegetable & fish fats   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid at room  temperature </li></ul></ul><...
Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated unsaturated 
Other lipids in biology <ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good molecule in cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
Other lipids in biology <ul><li>Cell membranes are made out of lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phospholipids </li></ul></ul><...
Nucleic Acids: Information molecules
Nucleic Acids  <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DeoxyriboNucleic Acid </li></ul><...
Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stores information <...
Nucleic acids <ul><li>Building block = </li></ul>nucleotides <ul><li>5 different nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>different n...
Nucleotide chains <ul><li>Nucleic acids  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleotides chained into a polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><...
DNA <ul><li>Double strand twists into a double helix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weak bonds  between nitrogen bases join the 2 s...
Copying DNA <ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copy DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 strands of DNA helix are  comp...
<ul><li>Copying DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pairing of the bases allows each strand to serve as a pattern for a new strand <...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Honors Biology Macromolecules

4,263 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

Honors Biology Macromolecules

  1. 1. The Chemistry of Life What are living creatures made of? Why do we have to eat?
  2. 2. <ul><li>96% of living organisms is made of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbon (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oxygen (O) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrogen (H) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen (N) </li></ul></ul>Elements of Life
  3. 3. Molecules of Life <ul><li>Put C, H, O, N together in different ways to build living organisms </li></ul><ul><li>What are bodies made of? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sugars & starches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fats (lipids) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, RNA </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why do we eat? <ul><li>We eat to take in more of these chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food for building materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to make more of us (cells) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food to make energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>calories </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to make ATP </li></ul></ul></ul>ATP
  5. 5. What do we need to eat? <ul><li>Foods to give you more building blocks & more energy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for building & running bodies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vitamins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minerals, salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of your body is H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water is inorganic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>doesn’t contain carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rest of you is made of carbon molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organic molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>proteins </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>nucleic acids </li></ul></ul></ul>Don’t forget water
  7. 7. How do we make these molecules? <ul><li>We build them! </li></ul>2006-2007
  8. 8. Building large molecules of life <ul><li>Chain together smaller molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building block molecules = monomers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big molecules built from little molecules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>polymers </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Small molecules = building blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Bond them together = polymers </li></ul>Building large organic molecules
  10. 10. Building important polymers sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar – sugar nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide Carbohydrates = built from sugars Proteins = built from amino acids Nucleic acids (DNA) = built from nucleotides amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid –
  11. 11. How to build large molecules <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>building bigger molecules from smaller molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building cells & bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>repair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul></ul>+ ATP
  12. 12. How to build a polymer <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>joins monomers by “taking” H 2 O out </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one monomer donates OH – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>other monomer donates H + </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>together these form H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires energy & enzymes </li></ul></ul>Dehydration synthesis Condensation reaction H 2 O HO HO H H H HO enzyme
  13. 13. How to take large molecules apart <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>taking big molecules apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>getting raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for synthesis & growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making energy (ATP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for synthesis, growth & everyday functions </li></ul></ul></ul>+ ATP
  14. 14. How to break down a polymer <ul><li>Digestion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use H 2 O to breakdown polymers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>reverse of dehydration synthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>break off one monomer at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 O is split into H + and OH – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H + & OH – attach to ends </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>releases energy </li></ul></ul>Hydrolysis Digestion H 2 O HO H HO H HO H enzyme
  15. 15. Example of digestion <ul><li>Starch is digested to glucose </li></ul>starch glucose ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP ATP
  16. 16. Example of synthesis <ul><li>amino acids = building block </li></ul><ul><li>protein = polymer </li></ul>amino acids protein <ul><li>Proteins are synthesized by bonding amino acids </li></ul>
  17. 17. Carbohydrates
  18. 18. Carbohydrates: Energy molecules OH OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O
  19. 19. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Building block molecules = </li></ul>sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar - sugar sugars sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar
  20. 20. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quick energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>energy storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell wall in plants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sugars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>starches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose (cell wall) </li></ul></ul>glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 starch sucrose
  21. 21. Sugars = building blocks <ul><li>Names for sugars usually end in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>glucose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fructose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sucrose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maltose </li></ul></ul>- ose OH OH H H HO CH 2 OH H H H OH O glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 sucrose fructose maltose
  22. 22. Building carbohydrates <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul>| glucose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide 2 sugars = disaccharide | maltose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two
  23. 23. Building carbohydrates <ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul>| fructose | glucose 1 sugar = monosaccharide | sucrose (table sugar) 2 sugars = disaccharide How sweet it is!
  24. 24. BIG carbohydrates <ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>starch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy storage in plants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>potatoes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glycogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>energy storage in animals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in liver & muscles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structure in plants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cell walls </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chitin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>structure in arthropods & fungi </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>exoskeleton </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>poly = many
  25. 25. Building BIG carbohydrates glucose + glucose + glucose… = starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage polysaccharide
  26. 26. Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest cellulose hard to digest enzyme enzyme
  27. 27. Cellulose <ul><li>Cell walls in plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>herbivores can digest cellulose well </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>most carnivores cannot digest cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose = roughage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stays undigested </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>keeps material moving in your intestines </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Proteins
  29. 29. Proteins: Multipurpose molecules
  30. 30. Proteins <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>skin, hair, fingernails, claws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collagen, keratin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pepsin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digestive enzyme in stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insulin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hormone that controls blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul></ul>collagen (skin) insulin pepsin
  31. 31. Proteins <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many, many functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>signals from one body system to another </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>insulin </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>muscle </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>immune system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>protect against germs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>enzymes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>help chemical reactions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Proteins <ul><li>Building block = </li></ul>variable group amino acids <ul><li>20 different amino acids </li></ul>amino acid amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – amino acid – — N — H H H | — C— | C—OH || O There’s 20 of us… like 20 different letters in an alphabet! Can make lots of different words
  33. 33. Amino acid chains <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each amino acid is different </li></ul><ul><li>some “like” water & dissolve in it </li></ul><ul><li>some “fear” water & separate from it </li></ul>amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid
  34. 34. For proteins: SHAPE matters ! <ul><li>Proteins fold & twist into 3-D shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that’s what happens in the cell! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different shapes = different jobs </li></ul>pepsin hemoglobin growth hormone collagen
  35. 35. Primary (1°) structure <ul><li>Order of amino acids in chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slight change in amino acid sequence can affect protein’s structure & its function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>even just one amino acid change can make all the difference! </li></ul></ul></ul>lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria
  36. 36. Secondary (2°) structure <ul><li>“ Local folding ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>folding along short sections of polypeptide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interactions between adjacent amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms sections of 3-D structure </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Tertiary (3°) structure <ul><li>“ Whole molecule folding ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>interactions between distant amino acids </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Quaternary (4°) structure <ul><li>More than one polypeptide chain bonded together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only then does polypeptide become functional protein </li></ul></ul>hemoglobin collagen = skin & tendons
  39. 39. Protein structure (review) amino acid sequence peptide bonds 1° determined by DNA R groups short 3D segments R groups whole molecule folding 3° multiple polypeptides 4° 2°
  40. 40. It’s SHAPE that matters! <ul><li>Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape </li></ul><ul><li>Unfolding a protein destroys its shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wrong shape = can’t do its job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>unfolding proteins = “denature” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>temperature </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pH (acidity) </li></ul></ul></ul>folded unfolded “denatured” In Biology, it’s not the size, it’s the SHAPE that matters!
  41. 41. Lipids: Fats & Oils
  42. 42. <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul>Concentrated energy molecules
  43. 43. Lipids <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>testosterone (male) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>estrogen (female) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Lipids <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>very concentrated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>twice the energy as carbohydrates! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cell membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cushions organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>insulates body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>think whale blubber! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Structure of Fat not a chain (polymer) = just a “big fat molecule”
  46. 46. Saturated fats <ul><li>Most animal fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limit the amount in your diet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contributes to heart disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deposits in arteries </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Unsaturated fats <ul><li>Plant, vegetable & fish fats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>liquid at room temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the fat molecules don’t stack tightly together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Better choice in your diet </li></ul>
  48. 48. Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated unsaturated 
  49. 49. Other lipids in biology <ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>good molecule in cell membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make hormones from it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>including sex hormones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>but too much cholesterol in blood may lead to heart disease </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Other lipids in biology <ul><li>Cell membranes are made out of lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heads are on the outside touching water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“like” water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tails are on inside away from water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“scared” of water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms a barrier between the cell & the outside </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. Nucleic Acids: Information molecules
  52. 52. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DeoxyriboNucleic Acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RiboNucleic Acid </li></ul></ul></ul>RNA
  53. 53. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Function: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>genetic material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stores information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>genes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blueprint for building proteins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA -> RNA -> proteins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>transfers information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blueprint for new cells </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>blueprint for next generation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>DNA proteins
  54. 54. Nucleic acids <ul><li>Building block = </li></ul>nucleotides <ul><li>5 different nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>different nitrogen bases </li></ul><ul><li>A, T, C, G, U </li></ul>nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide phosphate sugar N base Nitrogen bases I’m the A,T,C,G or U part!
  55. 55. Nucleotide chains <ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleotides chained into a polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>double-sided </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>double helix </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A, C, G, T </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RNA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>single-sided </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A, C, G, U </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>phosphate sugar N base phosphate sugar N base phosphate sugar N base phosphate sugar N base strong bonds RNA
  56. 56. DNA <ul><li>Double strand twists into a double helix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weak bonds between nitrogen bases join the 2 strands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A pairs with T </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A :: T </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C pairs with G </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C :: G </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the two strands can separate when our cells need to make copies of it </li></ul></ul>weak bonds
  57. 57. Copying DNA <ul><li>Replication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>copy DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 strands of DNA helix are complementary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are matching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have one, can build other </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>have one, can rebuild the whole </li></ul></ul></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Copying DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pairing of the bases allows each strand to serve as a pattern for a new strand </li></ul></ul>Newly copied strands of DNA DNA replication

×