Proteins Function:     many, many functions       hormones           signals from one body system to another          ...
How to build a polymer    Synthesis         joins monomers by ―taking‖ H2O out            one monomer donates OH–      ...
Amino acid chains     Proteins            amino acids chained into a polymer (or             polypeptide)amino acid     ...
Nucleotide chains                             sugar   N base Nucleic acids                   phosphate     nucleotides c...
It’s SHAPE that matters!   Proteins do their jobs, because   of their shape  Unfolding a protein destroys its shape    ...
Elements of Life  96% of living   organisms is made   of:      carbon (C)      oxygen (O)      hydrogen (H)      nitr...
Reducing Activation energy  Catalysts     reducing the amount of energy to      start a reaction                    unca...
Proteins Function:     many, many functions       hormones           signals from one body system to another          ...
Other lipids in biology  Cell membranes are made out of lipids    phospholipids    heads are on the outside touching wa...
Proteins  Building block =    amino acids    amino amino amino amino amino     acid – acid – acid – acid – acid       20...
Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… =   polysaccharide starch (plant) energy storageglycogen(animal)
Catalysts  So what’s a cell got to do to reduce   activation energy?      get help! … chemical help…   ENZYMES          ...
Enzyme vocabulary  Enzyme     helper protein molecule Substrate     molecule that enzymes work on Products     what ...
How to take large molecules apart  Digestion    taking big molecules apart    getting raw materials        for synthes...
Amino acid chains     Proteins            amino acids chained into a polymer (or             polypeptide)amino acid     ...
ProteinsExamples   muscle                                                     insulin   skin, hair, fingernails, claws  ...
DNA  Double strand twists into a double helix     weak bonds between nitrogen bases join the      2 strands        A pa...
How to build a polymer    Synthesis         joins monomers by ―taking‖ H2O out            one monomer donates OH–      ...
Building carbohydrates  Synthesis     1 sugar =                    2 sugars =   monosaccharide                disaccharid...
DNA  Double strand twists into a double helix     weak bonds between nitrogen bases join the      2 strands        A pa...
Nucleic acids  Building block =           nucleotides   nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide     5 differen...
Temperature                        human     What’s                       enzymes   happening                             ...
Saturated fats  Most animal fats      solid at room       temperature  Limit the amount in   your diet    contributes ...
Unsaturated fats Plant, vegetable & fish fats     liquid at room      temperature        the fat molecules         don’...
Sugars = building blocks  Names for sugars usually end in         -ose                      CH2OH    glucose            ...
Don’t forget water  Water    65% of your body is H2O    water is inorganic         doesn’t contain carbon  Rest of yo...
Elements of Life  96% of living   organisms is made   of:      carbon (C)      oxygen (O)      hydrogen (H)      nitr...
Cellulose Cell walls in plants   herbivores can digest cellulose well   most carnivores cannot digest cellulose       ...
CH2OH            H         O                           H                 H                 OH   H           HO            ...
Protein structure (review)                                                  R groups                                      ...
Nucleic acids  Building block =           nucleotides   nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide     5 differen...
Enzymes are proteins      Each enzyme is the specific helper to          a specific reaction            each enzyme need...
Primary (1°) structure  Order of amino acids in chain       slight change in amino acid        sequence can affect prote...
Enzymes are proteins      Each enzyme is the specific helper to          a specific reaction            each enzyme need...
Enzymes aren’t used up  Enzymes are not changed by the reaction    used only temporarily    re-used again for the same ...
Proteins  Building block =    amino acids    amino amino amino amino amino     acid – acid – acid – acid – acid       20...
pH                        stomach                intestines       What’s                                                  ...
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Honors Biology Corrections Presentation

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Honors Biology Corrections Presentation

  1. 1. Proteins Function:  many, many functions  hormones  signals from one body system to another  insulin  movement  muscle  immune system  protect against germs  enzymes  help chemical reactions
  2. 2. How to build a polymer  Synthesis  joins monomers by ―taking‖ H2O out  one monomer donates OH–  other monomer donates H+  together these form H2O H 2O  requires energy & enzymes HO H HO H enzymeDehydration synthesisCondensation reaction HO H
  3. 3. Amino acid chains  Proteins  amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide)amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid  Each amino acid is different  some ―like‖ water & dissolve in it  some ―fear‖ water & separate from it
  4. 4. Nucleotide chains sugar N base Nucleic acids phosphate  nucleotides chained sugar N base into a polymer  DNA phosphate  double-sided strong bonds  double helix sugar N base  A, C, G, T  RNA phosphate  single-sided  A, C, G, U sugar N base phosphate RNA
  5. 5. It’s SHAPE that matters!  Proteins do their jobs, because of their shape  Unfolding a protein destroys its shape  wrong shape = can’t do its job  unfolding proteins = ―denature‖  temperature unfolded  pH (acidity) ―denatured‖ In Biology, it’s not the size, it’s the SHAPE that matters! folded
  6. 6. Elements of Life  96% of living organisms is made of:  carbon (C)  oxygen (O)  hydrogen (H)  nitrogen (N)
  7. 7. Reducing Activation energy  Catalysts  reducing the amount of energy to start a reaction uncatalyzed reaction Pheeew… that takes a lot less energy! catalyzed reaction NEW activation energy reactant product
  8. 8. Proteins Function:  many, many functions  hormones  signals from one body system to another  insulin  movement  muscle  immune system  protect against germs  enzymes  help chemical reactions
  9. 9. Other lipids in biology  Cell membranes are made out of lipids  phospholipids  heads are on the outside touching water  ―like‖ water  tails are on inside away from water  ―scared‖ of water  forms a barrier between the cell & the outside
  10. 10. Proteins  Building block = amino acids amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid  20 different amino acids There’s H O 20 of us… H | || like 20 different letters in an —C—C—OH —N— alphabet! Can make lots of H | different words variable group
  11. 11. Building BIG carbohydratesglucose + glucose + glucose… = polysaccharide starch (plant) energy storageglycogen(animal)
  12. 12. Catalysts  So what’s a cell got to do to reduce activation energy?  get help! … chemical help… ENZYMES Call in the ENZYMES!
  13. 13. Enzyme vocabulary  Enzyme  helper protein molecule Substrate  molecule that enzymes work on Products  what the enzyme helps produce from the reaction Active site  part of enzyme that substrate molecule fits into
  14. 14. How to take large molecules apart  Digestion  taking big molecules apart  getting raw materials  for synthesis & growth  making energy (ATP)  for synthesis, growth & everyday functions + ATP
  15. 15. Amino acid chains  Proteins  amino acids chained into a polymer (or polypeptide)amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid amino acid  Each amino acid is different  some ―like‖ water & dissolve in it  some ―fear‖ water & separate from it
  16. 16. ProteinsExamples  muscle insulin  skin, hair, fingernails, claws  collagen, keratin pepsin  pepsin  digestive enzyme in stomach  insulin  hormone that controls blood sugar levels collagen (skin)
  17. 17. DNA  Double strand twists into a double helix  weak bonds between nitrogen bases join the 2 strands  A pairs with T  A :: T weak bonds  C pairs with G  C :: G  the two strands can separate when our cells need to make copies of it
  18. 18. How to build a polymer  Synthesis  joins monomers by ―taking‖ H2O out  one monomer donates OH–  other monomer donates H+  together these form H2O H 2O  requires energy & enzymes HO H HO H enzymeDehydration synthesisCondensation reaction HO H
  19. 19. Building carbohydrates  Synthesis 1 sugar = 2 sugars = monosaccharide disaccharide | | | glucose glucose maltose mono = one saccharide = sugar di = two
  20. 20. DNA  Double strand twists into a double helix  weak bonds between nitrogen bases join the 2 strands  A pairs with T  A :: T weak bonds  C pairs with G  C :: G  the two strands can separate when our cells need to make copies of it
  21. 21. Nucleic acids  Building block = nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide  5 different nucleotides Nitrogen bases  different nitrogen bases I’m the  A, T, C, G, U A,T,C,G or U part! sugar N base phosphate
  22. 22. Temperature human What’s enzymes happening here?! reaction rate 37° temperature
  23. 23. Saturated fats  Most animal fats  solid at room temperature  Limit the amount in your diet  contributes to heart disease  deposits in arteries
  24. 24. Unsaturated fats Plant, vegetable & fish fats  liquid at room temperature  the fat molecules don’t stack tightly together Better choice in your diet
  25. 25. Sugars = building blocks  Names for sugars usually end in -ose CH2OH  glucose H O  fructose H H OH H  sucrose HO OH  maltose H OH glucose C6H12O6 fructose sucrose maltose
  26. 26. Don’t forget water  Water  65% of your body is H2O  water is inorganic  doesn’t contain carbon  Rest of you is made of carbon molecules  organic molecules  carbohydrates  proteins  fats  nucleic acids
  27. 27. Elements of Life  96% of living organisms is made of:  carbon (C)  oxygen (O)  hydrogen (H)  nitrogen (N)
  28. 28. Cellulose Cell walls in plants  herbivores can digest cellulose well  most carnivores cannot digest cellulose  that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients  cellulose = roughage  stays undigested  keeps material moving in your intestines
  29. 29. CH2OH H O H H OH H HO OH H OHCarbohydrates:Energy molecules
  30. 30. Protein structure (review) R groups whole molecule folding 3°1° multiple amino acid polypeptides sequence 4° peptide bonds determined 2° by DNA R groups short 3D segments
  31. 31. Nucleic acids  Building block = nucleotides nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide – nucleotide  5 different nucleotides Nitrogen bases  different nitrogen bases I’m the  A, T, C, G, U A,T,C,G or U part! sugar N base phosphate
  32. 32. Enzymes are proteins  Each enzyme is the specific helper to a specific reaction  each enzyme needs to be the right shape for the job  enzymes are named for the reaction they helpOh, I get it!  sucrase breaks down sucrose They end in -ase  proteases breakdown proteins  lipases breakdown lipids  DNA polymerase builds DNA
  33. 33. Primary (1°) structure  Order of amino acids in chain  slight change in amino acid sequence can affect protein’s structure & its function  even just one amino acid change can make all the difference! lysozyme: enzyme in tears & mucus that kills bacteria
  34. 34. Enzymes are proteins  Each enzyme is the specific helper to a specific reaction  each enzyme needs to be the right shape for the job  enzymes are named for the reaction they helpOh, I get it!  sucrase breaks down sucrose They end in -ase  proteases breakdown proteins  lipases breakdown lipids  DNA polymerase builds DNA
  35. 35. Enzymes aren’t used up  Enzymes are not changed by the reaction  used only temporarily  re-used again for the same reaction with other molecules  very little enzyme needed to help in many reactions substrate product active site enzyme
  36. 36. Proteins  Building block = amino acids amino amino amino amino amino acid – acid – acid – acid – acid  20 different amino acids There’s H O 20 of us… H | || like 20 different letters in an —C—C—OH —N— alphabet! Can make lots of H | different words variable group
  37. 37. pH stomach intestines What’s happening pepsin trypsin here?!reaction rate 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH

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