Ecology Presentation - Honors


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Ecology Presentation - Honors

  1. 1. We share the Earth…Ecology & Environmental Issues
  2. 2. with a whole lot of other creatures…
  3. 3. We don’t share very well….
  4. 4. Ecology  Putting it all together…  study of interactions between creatures & their environment, because… Everything is connected to everything else
  5. 5. Ecosystem Living (Biotic) factors  all plants & animals living in an area Physical (Abiotic) factors  soil, rock, temperature, moisture, sunlight habitat = address (where you live) niche = job (the role you play)
  6. 6. Creatures living in their environment Populations
  7. 7. Earth’s land ecosystems
  8. 8. high biodiversityMarine coral reef= lots of light benthos= deep oceanintertidal= lots of nutrients
  9. 9. high biodiversityTropical rainforest lots of rain, lots of sunlight, always warm many plants & animals
  10. 10. mid biodiversitySavanna dry season/wet season, always warm frequent fires in dry season many herbivores
  11. 11. low biodiversityDesert very dry, hot in day & cold at night very few plants & only small animals: reptiles, insects, rodents, birds
  12. 12. Temperate Grassland (Midwest U.S.) mid biodiversity dry season/wet season, cold winters/hot summers frequent fires in dry season many herbivores
  13. 13. Temperate Deciduous Forest high biodiversity 4 seasons: warm summer with rains, cold winter with snow deciduous trees, many mammals, insects, birds, etc.
  14. 14. Coniferous Forest (Taiga) mid biodiversity northern forest, drier, cooler evergreens, mammals, birds, insects, etc.
  15. 15. low biodiversityTundra cold year round, dry, permafrost only lichens & mosses & mostly migrating animals
  16. 16. How do organisms live together? Community  populations of different species that live in the same place Community Feeding relationships
  17. 17. Community Interactions  Niche  Competition  Predation  Symbiosis  Mutualism  Commensalism  Parasitism
  18. 18. Level 4 Tertiary consumer SunFood chains Top Feeding relationships carnivore Level 3 Secondary consumer  all food chains start with energy from Carnivore the sun Level 2 Primary consumer  first level of all food chains is plants Herbivore  most food chains Level 1 Producer usually go up only 4 or 5 levels  all levels connect to Fungi Decomposers decomposers Bacteria
  19. 19. Loss of energy  Loss of energy between levels of food chain  To where is the energy lost? The cost of living! 17% growth energy lost toonly this energy daily livingmoves on to the 33% next level in cellular the food chain respiration 50% waste (feces)
  20. 20. Feeding levels How much energy can you get from food?  only the energy that is stored in the organism  80-90% energy lost from one level to next  food chain can only have 4 or 5 levels
  21. 21. Food webs Food chains are linked together into food webs Who eats whom?  eating meat?  eating plants? Many connections throughout ecosystem
  22. 22. Energy flows through… secondary loss of consumers energy sun (carnivores) loss of energy primary consumers (herbivores) loss of energy producers (plants)
  23. 23. Food chain pyramid Loss of energy between levels of food chain Numbers  can feed fewer animals in each level 1 100 100,000 1,000,000,000
  24. 24. Vegetarians or Meat-eaters??  How many people can Earth support?  If we are meat eaters?  If we are vegetarian? fewer people can live on Earth more people can live on Earth
  25. 25. But what about nutrients?  Energy flows through n u but nutrients cycle t  nutrients must be r recycled to be available i e for the next generation n  decomposers return t s nutrients to the soil after creatures die  fungi decomposers  bacteria
  26. 26. Nutrients cycle around… through decomposers consumers decomposers producers phosphorus potassium iron carbon nitrogen calcium soil magnesium
  27. 27. Energy flows Nutrients cycle loss of secondary energy consumers sun (carnivores) decomposers loss of primary consumers energy (herbivores)loss ofenergy producers (plants) 2006- soil
  28. 28. Ecosystem inputs constant input energy flows of energy through nutrients cycleMatterforget Don’t cannotbe created or the laws of destroyed Physics! nutrients inputs can only  energy cycle biosphere  nutrients
  29. 29. Beneficial Bacteria  99% of bacteria are HELPFUL not harmful!  Roles they play in the environment  Decomposer  Producer  Nitrogen fixation  Digestion – an example of mutualism too!!
  30. 30. Characteristics of Populations 1. Geographic distribution – area inhabited by a population 2. Density – -number of individuals per unit area. 3. Population growth – populations can increase or decrease in size based on 3 factors:  Number of Births  Number of Deaths  Individuals that enter (immigration) or leave (emigration) a population
  31. 31. Exponential Growth Individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate Graph = J-shaped curve At first, growth is slow. Over time, growth grows until it reaches an infinitely large size. Occurs under ideal conditions
  32. 32. Logistic Growth As resources become less available, the growth of a population slows Graph = S shaped When does this happen? birth rate slows death rate increases immigration decreases emigration increases Carrying capacity – the largest number of individuals that a given environment can support.
  33. 33. Limiting Factors  A factor that causes population growth to decrease  2 Types  density dependent  density independent
  34. 34. Density Dependent Factors Factor that depends on population size Effect large populations the most  Competition – crowded organisms compete with one another for food, water, space, sunlight & other essentials.  Predation – one organism captures & feeds on another organism  Parasitism & Disease – symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it (often causing disease or death)
  35. 35. 60 240050 200040 160030 120020 80010 4000 01955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Moose Wolves
  36. 36. Density Independent Factors Affect all populations in similar ways, regardless of size  Unusual weather  Natural disasters  Seasonal cycles  Some human activities Species will often crash due to one or more of these factors. After the crash some species will recover to build up again, others remain small.
  37. 37. Succession  Primary Succession  No pre-existing community  Secondary Succession  Disruption of pre-existing community  Climax community  Fully mature ecosystem  Equilibrium
  38. 38. Any Questions??