Chapter 9 (Cellular Respiration - Complete)

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Chapter 9 (Cellular Respiration - Complete)

  1. 1. Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical EnergyAP Biology 2006-2007 1
  2. 2. Cellular Respiration Harvesting Chemical Energy ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 1
  3. 3. AP Biology 2006-2007 2
  4. 4. What’s the point?AP Biology 2006-2007 2
  5. 5. What’s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 2
  6. 6. Harvesting stored energyAP Biology 3
  7. 7. Harvesting stored energy § Energy is stored in organic molecules u carbohydrates, fats, proteinsAP Biology 3
  8. 8. Harvesting stored energy § Energy is stored in organic molecules u carbohydrates, fats, proteins § Heterotrophs eat these organic molecules → food u digest organic molecules to get… § raw materials for synthesis § fuels for energy w controlled release of energy w “burning” fuels in a series of step-by-step enzyme-controlled reactionsAP Biology 3
  9. 9. Harvesting stored energyAP Biology 4
  10. 10. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPAP Biology 4
  11. 11. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPrespiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxideAP Biology 4
  12. 12. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPrespiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2AP Biology 4
  13. 13. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATPrespiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heatAP Biology 4
  14. 14. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) 4
  15. 15. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) 4
  16. 16. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) 4
  17. 17. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy by burning fuels in one step O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  18. 18. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  19. 19. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP O2 glucose fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  20. 20. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  21. 21. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps enzymes ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  22. 22. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP enzymes ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat 4
  23. 23. Harvesting stored energy § Glucose is the model u catabolism of glucose to produce ATP respiration glucose + oxygen → energy + water + carbon dioxide C6H12O6 + 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 + heat COMBUSTION = making a lot of heat energy RESPIRATION = making ATP (& some heat) by burning fuels in one step by burning fuels in many small steps ATP enzymes ATP O2 glucose O2 fuel AP Biologycarbohydrates) CO2 + H2O + heat CO2 + H2O + ATP (+ heat) 4
  24. 24. How do we harvest energy from fuels?AP Biology 5
  25. 25. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATPAP Biology 5
  26. 26. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP + +AP Biology 5
  27. 27. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP + +AP Biology e- 5
  28. 28. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- + +AP Biology e- 5
  29. 29. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + +AP Biology e- 5
  30. 30. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + + e-AP Biology e- 5
  31. 31. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + + + e-AP Biology e- 5
  32. 32. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  33. 33. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- + – + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  34. 34. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized + – + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  35. 35. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + e- e-AP Biology e- 5
  36. 36. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + e- e- oxidation reductionAP Biology e- 5
  37. 37. How do we harvest energy from fuels? § Digest large molecules into smaller ones u break bonds & move electrons from one molecule to another § as electrons move they “carry energy” with them § that energy is stored in another bond, released as heat or harvested to make ATP loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + e- e- oxidation reductionAP Biology e- redox 5
  38. 38. How do we move electrons in biology?AP Biology 6
  39. 39. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells § electrons move as part of H atom § move H = move electronsAP Biology 6
  40. 40. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electronsAP Biology 6
  41. 41. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction HAP Biology 6
  42. 42. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  43. 43. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  44. 44. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  45. 45. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology 6
  46. 46. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 6
  47. 47. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology H reduction 6
  48. 48. How do we move electrons in biology? § Moving electrons in living systems u electrons cannot move alone in cells e § electrons move as part of H atom p § move H = move electrons loses e- gains e- oxidized reduced + – + + H oxidation reduction H oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology H e- reduction 6
  49. 49. Coupling oxidation & reduction oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 7
  50. 50. Coupling oxidation & reduction § REDOX reactions in respiration u release energy as breakdown organic molecules § break C-C bonds § strip off electrons from C-H bonds by removing H atoms w C6H12O6 → CO2 = the fuel has been oxidized § electrons attracted to more electronegative atoms w in biology, the most electronegative atom? w O2 → H2O = oxygen has been reduced u couple REDOX reactions & use the released energy to synthesize ATP oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 7
  51. 51. Coupling oxidation & reduction § REDOX reactions in respiration u release energy as breakdown organic molecules § break C-C bonds § strip off electrons from C-H bonds by removing H atoms w C6H12O6 → CO2 = the fuel has been oxidized § electrons attracted to more electronegative atoms w in biology, the most electronegative atom? w O2 → H2O = oxygen has been reduced O2 u couple REDOX reactions & use the released energy to synthesize ATP oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATPAP Biology reduction 7
  52. 52. Oxidation & reduction § Reduction oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP reductionAP Biology 8
  53. 53. Oxidation & reduction § Oxidation § Reduction u adding O uremoving O u removing H uadding H u loss of electrons ugain of electrons u releases energy ustores energy u exergonic uendergonic oxidation C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP reductionAP Biology 8
  54. 54. Moving electrons in respirationNAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O– O– P –Ophosphates O O– adenine O– P –O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  55. 55. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O– O– P –Ophosphates O O– adenine O– P –O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  56. 56. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ How efficient! O– Build once, O– P –O use many waysphosphates O O– adenine O– P –O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  57. 57. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O– O– P –Ophosphates O O– adenine O– P –O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  58. 58. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ O– + H O– P –Ophosphates O O– adenine O– P –O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  59. 59. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2niacin N+ reduction O– + H O– P –Ophosphates O O– adenine O– P –O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  60. 60. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O O H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  61. 61. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  62. 62. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O O AP Biology ribose sugar 9
  63. 63. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  64. 64. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  65. 65. Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) reducing power! u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  66. 66. like $$ in the bank Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) reducing power! u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  67. 67. like $$ in the bank Moving electrons in respiration § Electron carriers move electrons by shuttling H atoms around u NAD+ → NADH (reduced) reducing power! u FAD+2 → FADH (reduced) 2NAD+ O NADH O H H HnicotinamideVitamin B3 C NH2 C NH2niacin N+ reduction N+ O– + H O– O– P –O oxidation O– P –Ophosphates O O O– adenine O– O– P –O O– P –O O carries electrons as a O AP Biology ribose sugar reduced molecule 9
  68. 68. Overview of cellular respirationAP Biology 10
  69. 69. Overview of cellular respiration § 4 metabolic stages u Anaerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis w respiration without O2 w in cytosol u Aerobic respiration w respiration using O2 w in mitochondria 2. Pyruvate oxidation 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport chain C H O6 +AP Biology 6 12 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 10
  70. 70. Overview of cellular respiration § 4 metabolic stages u Anaerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis w respiration without O2 w in cytosol u Aerobic respiration w respiration using O2 w in mitochondria 2. Pyruvate oxidation 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport chain C H O6 +AP Biology 6 12 6O2 → ATP + 6H2O + 6CO2 (+ heat) 10
  71. 71. AP Biology 2006-2007 11
  72. 72. What’s the point?AP Biology 2006-2007 11
  73. 73. What’s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 11
  74. 74. H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+ H+AP Biology 12
  75. 75. H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+§ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it § conformational changes § bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient § allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient through ATP synthase § ADP + Pi → ATP H+AP Biology 12
  76. 76. H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+§ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it § conformational changes § bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient § allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP through ATP synthase § ADP + Pi → ATP H+AP Biology 12
  77. 77. H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+§ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it § conformational changes § bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient § allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP + P through ATP synthase § ADP + Pi → ATP H+AP Biology 12
  78. 78. H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+§ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it § conformational changes § bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient § allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP + P through ATP synthase § ADP + Pi → ATP ATP H+AP Biology 12
  79. 79. H+ H+ H+ H+ And how do we do that? H+ H+ H+ H+§ ATP synthase enzyme u H+ flows through it § conformational changes § bond Pi to ADP to make ATP u set up a H+ gradient § allow the H+ to flow down concentration gradient ADP + P through ATP synthase § ADP + Pi → ATP ATP H+APBut… Biology How is the proton (H+) gradient formed? 12
  80. 80. H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ H+ ADP + P ATP H+AP Biology 2006-2007 13
  81. 81. H+ Got to wait until H+ H+ H+ H+ the sequel! H+ H+ H+ Got the Energy? Ask Questions! ADP + P ATP H+AP Biology 2006-2007 13
  82. 82. Cellular Respiration Stage 1: GlycolysisAP Biology 2006-2007 14
  83. 83. Cellular Respiration Stage 1: GlycolysisAP Biology 2006-2007 14
  84. 84. AP Biology 2006-2007 15
  85. 85. What’s the point?AP Biology 2006-2007 15
  86. 86. What’s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATPAP Biology 2006-2007 15
  87. 87. Glycolysis § Breaking down glucose u “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) u ancient pathway which harvests energy § where energy transfer first evolved § transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP § still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but it’s inefficient § generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosolAP Biology 16
  88. 88. Glycolysis § Breaking down glucose u “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) glucose → → → → → pyruvate 6C 2x 3C u ancient pathway which harvests energy § where energy transfer first evolved § transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP § still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but it’s inefficient § generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosolAP Biology 16
  89. 89. Glycolysis § Breaking down glucose u “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) glucose → → → → → pyruvate 6C 2x 3CAP Biology 16
  90. 90. Glycolysis § Breaking down glucose u “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) glucose → → → → → pyruvate 6C 2x 3C u ancient pathway which harvests energy § where energy transfer first evolved § transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP § still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but it’s inefficient § generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosolAP Biology 16
  91. 91. Glycolysis § Breaking down glucose u “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) glucose → → → → → pyruvate 6C 2x 3C u ancient pathway which harvests energy § where energy transfer first evolved § transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP § still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but it’s inefficient § generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosol That’s not enoughAP Biology ATP for me! 16
  92. 92. Glycolysis § Breaking down glucose u “glyco – lysis” (splitting sugar) In the cytosol? glucose → → → → → pyruvate Why does that make 6C 2x 3C evolutionary sense? u ancient pathway which harvests energy § where energy transfer first evolved § transfer energy from organic molecules to ATP § still is starting point for ALL cellular respiration u but it’s inefficient § generate only 2 ATP for every 1 glucose u occurs in cytosol That’s not enoughAP Biology ATP for me! 16
  93. 93. Evolutionary perspectiveAP Biology 17
  94. 94. Evolutionary perspective § Prokaryotes u first cells had no organellesAP Biology 17
  95. 95. Evolutionary perspective § Prokaryotes u first cells had no organelles § Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2AP Biology 17
  96. 96. Evolutionary perspective § Prokaryotes u first cells had no organelles § Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2 § Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life u ALL cells still utilize glycolysisAP Biology 17
  97. 97. Evolutionary perspective Enzymes § Prokaryotes of glycolysis are u first cells had no organelles “well-conserved” § Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2 § Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life u ALL cells still utilize glycolysisAP Biology 17
  98. 98. Evolutionary perspective Enzymes § Prokaryotes of glycolysis are u first cells had no organelles “well-conserved” § Anaerobic atmosphere u life on Earth first evolved without free oxygen (O2) in atmosphere u energy had to be captured from organic molecules in absence of O2 § Prokaryotes that evolved glycolysis are ancestors of all modern life u ALL cells still utilize glycolysis You mean we’re related? Do I have to invite them over forAP Biology the holidays? 17
  99. 99. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-CAP Biology 18
  100. 100. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C10 reactionsu convert glucose (6C) to 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  101. 101. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C10 reactionsu convert glucose (6C) to 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  102. 102. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C10 reactionsu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  103. 103. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactionsu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  104. 104. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  105. 105. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: 4 ATP & 2 NADHu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  106. 106. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: DHAP 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-Cu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  107. 107. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADPu convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C)u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-Pu consumes: 2 ATPu net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADH AP Biology 18
  108. 108. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 18
  109. 109. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate 18
  110. 110. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  111. 111. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  112. 112. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2 ATP u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  113. 113. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  114. 114. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  115. 115. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  116. 116. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADHDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  117. 117. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  118. 118. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  119. 119. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  120. 120. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) enzyme enzyme u produces: DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  121. 121. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) enzyme enzyme u produces: enzyme DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pi 2 ATP 2 u net yield: 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  122. 122. glucose Overview C-C-C-C-C-C enzyme 2 ATP10 reactions enzyme 2 ADP u convert fructose-1,6bP glucose (6C) to P-C-C-C-C-C-C-P 2 pyruvate (3C) enzyme enzyme u produces: enzyme DHAP G3P 4 ATP & 2 NADH P-C-C-C C-C-C-P u consumes: 2H 2 NAD+ 2Pienzyme 2 ATP 2 u net yield: enzyme 2Pi 4 ADP 2 ATP & 2 NADH enzyme 4 ATPDHAP = dihydroxyacetone phosphate pyruvateG3P Biology AP = glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate C-C-C 18
  123. 123. Glycolysis summaryAP Biology 19
  124. 124. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENTAP Biology 19
  125. 125. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonicAP Biology 19
  126. 126. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATPAP Biology 19
  127. 127. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATPAP Biology 19
  128. 128. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATPAP Biology 19
  129. 129. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATPAP Biology 19
  130. 130. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3P C-C-C-PAP Biology 19
  131. 131. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-PAP Biology 19
  132. 132. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonicAP Biology 19
  133. 133. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little ATP & a little NADHAP Biology 19
  134. 134. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADHAP Biology 19
  135. 135. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankAP Biology 19
  136. 136. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELDAP Biology 19
  137. 137. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELD net yieldAP Biology 19
  138. 138. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELD net yield ü2 ATPAP Biology 19
  139. 139. Glycolysis summaryENERGY INVESTMENT endergonic invest some ATP -2 ATP G3PENERGY PAYOFF C-C-C-P exergonic harvest a little 4 ATP ATP & a little NADH like $$ in the bankNET YIELD net yield ü2 ATPAP Biology ü2 NADH 19
  140. 140. 1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) CH2OHGlucose “priming” Glucose 1 O ATP hexokinaseuget glucose ready to ADP CH2 O P O split Glucose 6-phosphate 2 § phosphorylate phosphoglucose CH2 O P glucose isomerase O CH2OH § molecular Fructose 6-phosphate 3 rearrangement ATP phosphofructokinase P O CH2 CH2 O Pusplit destabilized ADP O Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glucose 4,5 aldolase H P O CH2 isomerase C O C O Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -phosphate (G3P) CHOH CH2OH CH2 O P NAD+ Pi 6 Pi NAD+ NADH glyceraldehyde NADH 3-phosphate P O O dehydrogenase CHOHAP Biology 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (BPG) CH2 O P 20
  141. 141. 1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) CH2OHGlucose “priming” Glucose 1 O ATP hexokinaseuget glucose ready to ADP CH2 O P O split Glucose 6-phosphate 2 § phosphorylate phosphoglucose CH2 O P glucose isomerase O CH2OH § molecular Fructose 6-phosphate 3 rearrangement ATP phosphofructokinase P O CH2 CH2 O Pusplit destabilized ADP O Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glucose 4,5 aldolase H P O CH2 isomerase C O C O Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -phosphate (G3P) CHOH CH2OH CH2 O P NAD+ Pi 6 Pi NAD+ NADH glyceraldehyde NADH 3-phosphate P O O dehydrogenase CHOHAP Biology 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (BPG) CH2 O P 20
  142. 142. 1st half of glycolysis (5 reactions) CH2OHGlucose “priming” Glucose 1 O ATP hexokinaseuget glucose ready to ADP CH2 O P O split Glucose 6-phosphate 2 § phosphorylate phosphoglucose CH2 O P glucose isomerase O CH2OH § molecular Fructose 6-phosphate 3 rearrangement ATP phosphofructokinase P O CH2 CH2 O Pusplit destabilized ADP O Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate glucose 4,5 aldolase H P O CH2 isomerase C O C O Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate -phosphate (G3P) CHOH CH2OH CH2 O P NAD+ Pi 6 Pi NAD+ NADH glyceraldehyde NADH 3-phosphate P O O dehydrogenase CHOHAP Biology 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate 1,3-Bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) (BPG) CH2 O P 20
  143. 143. 2nd half of glycolysis (5 reactions) Energy Harvest NAD+ Pi Pi NAD+ 6 NADH NADH ADP 7 ADP phosphoglycerate O- kinase ATP C ATP 3-Phosphoglycerate 3-Phosphoglycerate CHOH (3PG) (3PG) CH2 O P 8 O- phosphoglycero- mutase C O H C O P 2-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG) (2PG) CH2OH 9 O- H 2O enolase H 2O C O C O P Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate CH2 (PEP) (PEP) 10 O- ADP ADP pyruvate kinase C O ATP ATP C OAP Biology Pyruvate Pyruvate CH3 21
  144. 144. 2nd half of glycolysis (5 reactions) DHAP Energy Harvest P-C-C-C NAD+ Pi Pi NAD+ 6 NADH NADH ADP 7 ADP phosphoglycerate O- kinase ATP C ATP 3-Phosphoglycerate 3-Phosphoglycerate CHOH (3PG) (3PG) CH2 O P 8 O- phosphoglycero- mutase C O H C O P 2-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG) (2PG) CH2OH 9 O- H 2O enolase H 2O C O C O P Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate CH2 (PEP) (PEP) 10 O- ADP ADP pyruvate kinase C O ATP ATP C OAP Biology Pyruvate Pyruvate CH3 21
  145. 145. 2nd half of glycolysis (5 reactions) DHAP G3P Energy Harvest P-C-C-C C-C-C-P NAD+ Pi Pi NAD+ 6 NADH NADH ADP 7 ADP phosphoglycerate O- kinase ATP C ATP 3-Phosphoglycerate 3-Phosphoglycerate CHOH (3PG) (3PG) CH2 O P 8 O- phosphoglycero- mutase C O H C O P 2-Phosphoglycerate 2-Phosphoglycerate (2PG) (2PG) CH2OH 9 O- H 2O enolase H 2O C O C O P Phosphoenolpyruvate Phosphoenolpyruvate CH2 (PEP) (PEP) 10 O- ADP ADP pyruvate kinase C O ATP ATP C OAP Biology Pyruvate Pyruvate CH3 21

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