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Sensory and Motor Mechanisms<br />Chapter 50<br />
Complex sensory systems that facilitate survival.<br />
Bats use sonar to detect prey.<br />
Moths can detect the bat’s sonar.<br />
Include diverse mechanisms that sense stimuli and generate appropriate movement.<br />
2. Describe the four general functions of receptor cells…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
All stimuli represent forms of energy.<br />Sensation involves converting energy into a change in the membrane potential o...
All stimuli represent forms of energy.<br />Function of sensory pathways: sensory reception, transduction, transmission, a...
Sensation and perceptions begin with sensory reception.<br />Detection of stimuli by receptors – both inside and outside o...
3. Distinguish between sensory transduction and…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
Sensory transduction: conversion of stimulus energy into change of membrane potential.<br />Change is called receptor pote...
Transmission: sensory cell facilitate the movement of action potentials.<br />Larger receptor potential = more rapid actio...
Integration: receptor potentials integrated through summation.<br />
4. Since all action potentials are the same, explain how the brain distinguishes…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<b...
Perception: the brain’s construction of stimuli<br />Brain distinguishes stimuli from different receptors by the area wher...
6. Explain the importance of sensory adaptation.<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
Type of Sensory Receptors<br />
7. List the five categories of sensory receptors…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
Mechanoreceptors: sense physical deformation.<br />TOUCH!<br />
Chemoreceptors: information about the total solute concentration of a solution.<br />Respond to individual kinds of molecu...
Electromagnetic receptors: detect electromagnetic energy such as light, electricity and magnetism.<br />
Thermoreceptors: respond to heat or cold.<br />Regulate body temp. by signaling both surface and core temp.<br />
Nociceptors: naked dendrites in the epidermis.<br />Pain receptors.<br />
8. Explain the role of mechanoreceptors in hearing and balance.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
Hearing and perception of body equilibrium are related in most animals.<br />Mechanoreceptors<br />
9. Describe the structure and function of invertebrate statocysts..<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
Most invertebrates maintain equilibrium using statocysts.<br />Detect movement of granules called statoliths.<br />
10. Explain how insects may detect sound.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
Many arthropods sense sounds with body hairs that vibrate.<br />“Ears” consisting of tympanic membrane and receptor cells....
11. Refer to a diagram of the human ear and give the function of each structure.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
Vibrations create percussion waves that vibrate tympanic membrane.<br />Bones of the middle ear transmit the vibrations.<b...
Vibrations create waves of fluid that move through vestibular canal.<br />Waves cause the basilar membrane to vibrate, ben...
12. Explain how the mammalian ear functions as a hearing organ.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
Bending of hair cells depolarizes the membranes.<br />Sends action potential to the brain via the auditory nerve.<br />
13. Describe how the ear conveys information about volume and pitch of sound to the brain.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
Ear conveys information about volume and pitch.<br />
15. Describe the hearing and equilibrium system of nonmammalian vertebrates.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
Fishes have only a pair of inner ears near the brain.<br />Also have lateral line system that detect and respond to water ...
16. Distinguish between tastants and odorants.<br />Chemoreception: Taste and Smell<br />
Taste and smell rely on similar set of sensory receptors.<br />Terrestrial animals:<br />Gustation: Taste, detection of ch...
Taste and smell rely on similar set of sensory receptors.<br />Taste buds detect five taste perceptions: sweet, sour, salt...
19. Describe what happens after an odorant binds to an ordorant receptor…<br />Chemoreception: Taste and Smell<br />
Olfactory receptors are neurons that line the upper portion of the nasal cavity.<br />
Photoreception and Vision<br />
22. Refer to a diagram of the vertebrate eye…<br />Photoreception and Vision<br />
The basic structure of the vertebrate eye.<br />
Muscle Function<br />
Muscle activity is a response to input from the nervous system.<br />The action of a muscle is always to contract.<br />
Skeletal muscle characterized by a hierarchy of smaller and smaller units.<br />Consists of a bundle of long fibers – each...
Two kinds of myofilaments.<br />Thin: two strands of actin, one strand of regulatory protein.<br />Thick: staggered arrays...
Skeletal muscle also called striated muscle – arrangement of myofilaments create light and dark bands.<br />Functional uni...
Sliding-filament model: filaments slide past each other, producing overlap.<br />Based on interaction between actin of thi...
Fig. 50-27-1<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP...
Fig. 50-27-2<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP...
Fig. 50-27-3<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP...
Fig. 50-27-4<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP...
Skeletal muscle fiber contract only when stimulated by a motor neuron.<br />Muscle at rest, myosin-binding sites on thin f...
For a muscle fiber to contract, myosin-binding sites must be uncovered<br />This occurs when calcium ions (Ca2+) bind to a...
The synaptic terminal of the motor neuron releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine<br />Acetylcholine depolarizes the m...
Action potentials travel to the interior of the muscle fiber along transverse (T) tubules<br />
The action potential along T tubules causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to release Ca2+<br />
The Ca2+ binds to the troponin complex on the thin filaments<br />
This binding exposes myosin-binding sites and allows the cross-bridge cycle to proceed<br />
Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers<br />Skeletal muscle fibers can be classified<br />As oxidative or glycolytic fibers, by t...
Oxidative and Glycolytic Fibers<br />Oxidative fibers rely on aerobic respiration to generate ATP<br />These fibers have m...
Glycolytic fibers use glycolysis as their primary source of ATP<br />Glycolytic fibers have less myoglobin than oxidative ...
Fast-Twitch and Slow-Twitch Fibers<br />Slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly, but sustain longer contractions<br />All ...
Most skeletal muscles contain both slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles in varying ratios<br />
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Chapter 50 Class Presentation

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Chapter 50 Class Presentation

  1. 1. Sensory and Motor Mechanisms<br />Chapter 50<br />
  2. 2. Complex sensory systems that facilitate survival.<br />
  3. 3. Bats use sonar to detect prey.<br />
  4. 4. Moths can detect the bat’s sonar.<br />
  5. 5. Include diverse mechanisms that sense stimuli and generate appropriate movement.<br />
  6. 6. 2. Describe the four general functions of receptor cells…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
  7. 7. All stimuli represent forms of energy.<br />Sensation involves converting energy into a change in the membrane potential of sensory receptors.<br />
  8. 8. All stimuli represent forms of energy.<br />Function of sensory pathways: sensory reception, transduction, transmission, an integration.<br />
  9. 9. Sensation and perceptions begin with sensory reception.<br />Detection of stimuli by receptors – both inside and outside of the body.<br />
  10. 10. 3. Distinguish between sensory transduction and…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
  11. 11. Sensory transduction: conversion of stimulus energy into change of membrane potential.<br />Change is called receptor potential – many are very sensitive.<br />
  12. 12. Transmission: sensory cell facilitate the movement of action potentials.<br />Larger receptor potential = more rapid action potentials.<br />
  13. 13. Integration: receptor potentials integrated through summation.<br />
  14. 14. 4. Since all action potentials are the same, explain how the brain distinguishes…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
  15. 15. Perception: the brain’s construction of stimuli<br />Brain distinguishes stimuli from different receptors by the area where the action potentials arrive.<br />
  16. 16. 6. Explain the importance of sensory adaptation.<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
  17. 17. Type of Sensory Receptors<br />
  18. 18. 7. List the five categories of sensory receptors…<br />Introduction of Sensory Reception<br />
  19. 19. Mechanoreceptors: sense physical deformation.<br />TOUCH!<br />
  20. 20. Chemoreceptors: information about the total solute concentration of a solution.<br />Respond to individual kinds of molecules.<br />
  21. 21. Electromagnetic receptors: detect electromagnetic energy such as light, electricity and magnetism.<br />
  22. 22. Thermoreceptors: respond to heat or cold.<br />Regulate body temp. by signaling both surface and core temp.<br />
  23. 23. Nociceptors: naked dendrites in the epidermis.<br />Pain receptors.<br />
  24. 24. 8. Explain the role of mechanoreceptors in hearing and balance.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
  25. 25. Hearing and perception of body equilibrium are related in most animals.<br />Mechanoreceptors<br />
  26. 26. 9. Describe the structure and function of invertebrate statocysts..<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
  27. 27. Most invertebrates maintain equilibrium using statocysts.<br />Detect movement of granules called statoliths.<br />
  28. 28. 10. Explain how insects may detect sound.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
  29. 29. Many arthropods sense sounds with body hairs that vibrate.<br />“Ears” consisting of tympanic membrane and receptor cells.<br />
  30. 30. 11. Refer to a diagram of the human ear and give the function of each structure.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
  31. 31.
  32. 32. Vibrations create percussion waves that vibrate tympanic membrane.<br />Bones of the middle ear transmit the vibrations.<br />
  33. 33. Vibrations create waves of fluid that move through vestibular canal.<br />Waves cause the basilar membrane to vibrate, bending hair cells.<br />
  34. 34. 12. Explain how the mammalian ear functions as a hearing organ.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
  35. 35. Bending of hair cells depolarizes the membranes.<br />Sends action potential to the brain via the auditory nerve.<br />
  36. 36. 13. Describe how the ear conveys information about volume and pitch of sound to the brain.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
  37. 37. Ear conveys information about volume and pitch.<br />
  38. 38. 15. Describe the hearing and equilibrium system of nonmammalian vertebrates.<br />Hearing and Equilibrium<br />
  39. 39. Fishes have only a pair of inner ears near the brain.<br />Also have lateral line system that detect and respond to water movement.<br />
  40. 40. 16. Distinguish between tastants and odorants.<br />Chemoreception: Taste and Smell<br />
  41. 41. Taste and smell rely on similar set of sensory receptors.<br />Terrestrial animals:<br />Gustation: Taste, detection of chemicals called tastants.<br />Olfaction: Smell, detection of odorant molecules.<br />
  42. 42. Taste and smell rely on similar set of sensory receptors.<br />Taste buds detect five taste perceptions: sweet, sour, salty, butter, and umami – different regions of the tongue.<br />
  43. 43. 19. Describe what happens after an odorant binds to an ordorant receptor…<br />Chemoreception: Taste and Smell<br />
  44. 44. Olfactory receptors are neurons that line the upper portion of the nasal cavity.<br />
  45. 45. Photoreception and Vision<br />
  46. 46. 22. Refer to a diagram of the vertebrate eye…<br />Photoreception and Vision<br />
  47. 47. The basic structure of the vertebrate eye.<br />
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50. Muscle Function<br />
  51. 51. Muscle activity is a response to input from the nervous system.<br />The action of a muscle is always to contract.<br />
  52. 52. Skeletal muscle characterized by a hierarchy of smaller and smaller units.<br />Consists of a bundle of long fibers – each a single cell – running the length of the muscle.<br />Each muscle fiber is a bundle of smaller myofibrils.<br />
  53. 53. Two kinds of myofilaments.<br />Thin: two strands of actin, one strand of regulatory protein.<br />Thick: staggered arrays of myosin molecules.<br />
  54. 54. Skeletal muscle also called striated muscle – arrangement of myofilaments create light and dark bands.<br />Functional unit of a muscle is called a sarcomere – bordered by Z lines.<br />
  55. 55. Sliding-filament model: filaments slide past each other, producing overlap.<br />Based on interaction between actin of thin filaments and myosin of the thick filaments.<br />
  56. 56. Fig. 50-27-1<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP <br />Thickfilament<br />
  57. 57. Fig. 50-27-2<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP <br />Thickfilament<br />Myosin binding sites<br />Actin<br />ADP<br />Myosin head (high-energy configuration<br />P i<br />
  58. 58. Fig. 50-27-3<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP <br />Thickfilament<br />Myosin binding sites<br />Actin<br />ADP<br />Myosin head (high-energy configuration<br />P i<br />ADP<br />Cross-bridge<br />P i<br />
  59. 59. Fig. 50-27-4<br />Thick filament<br />Thinfilaments<br />Thin filament<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />ATP <br />ATP <br />Thickfilament<br />Myosin binding sites<br />Thin filament movestoward center of sarcomere.<br />Actin<br />ADP<br />Myosin head (low-energy configuration<br />Myosin head (high-energy configuration<br />P i<br />ADP<br />ADP<br />+<br />P i<br />Cross-bridge<br />P i<br />
  60. 60. Skeletal muscle fiber contract only when stimulated by a motor neuron.<br />Muscle at rest, myosin-binding sites on thin filament blocked by protein tropomyosin.<br />
  61. 61. For a muscle fiber to contract, myosin-binding sites must be uncovered<br />This occurs when calcium ions (Ca2+) bind to a set of regulatory proteins, the troponin complex<br />Muscle fiber contracts when the concentration of Ca2+ is high; muscle fiber contraction stops when the concentration of Ca2+ is low<br />
  62. 62. The synaptic terminal of the motor neuron releases the neurotransmitter acetylcholine<br />Acetylcholine depolarizes the muscle, causing it to produce an action potential<br />
  63. 63. Action potentials travel to the interior of the muscle fiber along transverse (T) tubules<br />
  64. 64. The action potential along T tubules causes the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to release Ca2+<br />
  65. 65. The Ca2+ binds to the troponin complex on the thin filaments<br />
  66. 66. This binding exposes myosin-binding sites and allows the cross-bridge cycle to proceed<br />
  67. 67. Types of Skeletal Muscle Fibers<br />Skeletal muscle fibers can be classified<br />As oxidative or glycolytic fibers, by the source of ATP<br />As fast-twitch or slow-twitch fibers, by the speed of muscle contraction<br />
  68. 68. Oxidative and Glycolytic Fibers<br />Oxidative fibers rely on aerobic respiration to generate ATP<br />These fibers have many mitochondria, a rich blood supply, and much myoglobin<br />Myoglobin is a protein that binds oxygen more tightly than hemoglobin does<br />
  69. 69. Glycolytic fibers use glycolysis as their primary source of ATP<br />Glycolytic fibers have less myoglobin than oxidative fibers, and tire more easily<br />In poultry and fish, light meat is composed of glycolytic fibers, while dark meat is composed of oxidative fibers<br />
  70. 70. Fast-Twitch and Slow-Twitch Fibers<br />Slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly, but sustain longer contractions<br />All slow twitch fibers are oxidative<br />Fast-twitch fibers contract more rapidly, but sustain shorter contractions<br />Fast-twitch fibers can be either glycolytic or oxidative<br />
  71. 71. Most skeletal muscles contain both slow-twitch and fast-twitch muscles in varying ratios<br />

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