Animal Reproduction             &       DevelopmentAP Biology                2007-2008
What is the                                   advantage of                                 this development   Oogenesis   ...
Fertilization                      fertilization                      cleavage                      gastrulation       ...
Fertilization     Joining of sperm & egg            sperm head (nucleus) enters eggAP Biology
Cleavage     Repeated mitotic divisions of zygote          1st step to becoming multicellular          unequal division...
Cleavage     zygote  morula  blastula            establishes future developmentzygote                                 ...
gastrulation in   Gastrulation                             primitive chordates Establish 3 cell layers      ectoderm    ...
Testing…     All of the following correctly describe the fate of the     embryonic layers of a vertebrate EXCEPT       A. ...
Testing…     In a study of the development of frogs, groups of cells in the     germ layers of several embryos in the earl...
Neurulation    Formation of notochord & neural tube            develop into nervous system                              ...
Organogenesis                                           Umbilical blood vessels                   Mammalian embryo        ...
Placenta     Materials exchange across membranesAP Biology
Human fetal development     4 weeks        7 weeksAP Biology
Human fetal development                       10 weeksAP Biology
Human fetal development12 Biology AP weeks           20 weeks
Human fetal development      The fetus just spends much of the 2nd &        3rd trimesters just growing             …and ...
Human fetal development     24 weeks (6 months; 2nd trimester)    fetus is covered    with fine, downy    hair called    ...
Human fetal development     30 weeks (7.5 months)       umbilical cordAP Biology
Getting crowded in there!!     32 weeks (8 months)     The fetus     sleeps 90-95%     of the day &     sometimes     exp...
positive feedback                                 BirthAP Biology
Birth (36 weeks)Intestine PlacentaUmbilicalcord     Wall of     uterus       Bladder        CervixAP      Vagina     Biology
The end of the journey!                      And you think                       9 months of                      AP Bio i...
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Chapter 46 - Animal Reproduction

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Chapter 46 - Animal Reproduction

  1. 1. Animal Reproduction & DevelopmentAP Biology 2007-2008
  2. 2. What is the advantage of this development Oogenesis system?  Unequal meiotic divisions  unequal distribution of cytoplasm  1 egg  2 polar bodies Meiosis 1 completed during egg maturation ovulation Meiosis 2 completed triggered by fertilization Put all your eggAP Biology in one basket!
  3. 3. Fertilization  fertilization  cleavage  gastrulation  neurulation  organogenesisAP Biology
  4. 4. Fertilization  Joining of sperm & egg  sperm head (nucleus) enters eggAP Biology
  5. 5. Cleavage  Repeated mitotic divisions of zygote  1st step to becoming multicellular  unequal divisions establishes body plan  different cells receive different portions of egg cytoplasm & therefore different regulatory signalsAP Biology
  6. 6. Cleavage  zygote  morula  blastula  establishes future developmentzygote gastrulationmorulaAP Biology blastula
  7. 7. gastrulation in Gastrulation primitive chordates Establish 3 cell layers  ectoderm  outer body tissues  skin, nails, teeth  nerves, eyes, lining of mouth ectoderm  mesoderm  middle tissues  blood & lymph, bone & notochord, muscle mesoderm  excretory & reproductive systems  endoderm  inner lining endoderm  digestive system  lining of respiratory, excretory & reproductive systems AP Biologyprotostome vs. deuterostome
  8. 8. Testing… All of the following correctly describe the fate of the embryonic layers of a vertebrate EXCEPT A. neural tube and epidermis develop from ectoderm B. linings of digestive organs and lungs develop from endoderm C. notochord and kidneys develop from endoderm D. skeletal muscles and heart develop from mesoderm E. reproductive organs and blood vessels develop from mesodermAP Biology
  9. 9. Testing… In a study of the development of frogs, groups of cells in the germ layers of several embryos in the early gastrula stage were stained with five different dyes that do not harm living tissue. After organogenesis (organ formation), the location of the dyes was noted, as shown in the table below. Tissue Stain Brain Red Notochord Yellow Liver Green Lens of the eye Blue Lining of the digestive tract PurpleAP Biology
  10. 10. Neurulation  Formation of notochord & neural tube  develop into nervous system develops into CNS Neural tube (brain & spinal cord) Notochord develops into vertebral columnAP Biology
  11. 11. Organogenesis Umbilical blood vessels Mammalian embryo ChorionBird embryo Amnion Yolk sac Allantois Fetal blood vessels Placenta Maternal blood vesselsAP Biology
  12. 12. Placenta  Materials exchange across membranesAP Biology
  13. 13. Human fetal development 4 weeks 7 weeksAP Biology
  14. 14. Human fetal development 10 weeksAP Biology
  15. 15. Human fetal development12 Biology AP weeks 20 weeks
  16. 16. Human fetal development  The fetus just spends much of the 2nd & 3rd trimesters just growing …and doing various flip-turns & kicks inside amniotic fluid Week 20AP Biology
  17. 17. Human fetal development  24 weeks (6 months; 2nd trimester) fetus is covered with fine, downy hair called lanugo. Its skin is protected by a waxy material called vernixAP Biology
  18. 18. Human fetal development  30 weeks (7.5 months) umbilical cordAP Biology
  19. 19. Getting crowded in there!!  32 weeks (8 months) The fetus sleeps 90-95% of the day & sometimes experiences REM sleep, an indication of dreamingAP Biology
  20. 20. positive feedback BirthAP Biology
  21. 21. Birth (36 weeks)Intestine PlacentaUmbilicalcord Wall of uterus Bladder CervixAP Vagina Biology
  22. 22. The end of the journey! And you think 9 months of AP Bio is hard!AP Biology

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