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Chapter 40 Class Presentation

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Chapter 40 Class Presentation

  1. 1. Basic Principles of Animal Form & Function<br />Chapter 40<br />
  2. 2. 1. Distinguish between anatomy and physiology.<br />Animal Form and Function<br />
  3. 3. Anatomy & Physiology <br />Anatomy<br />Biological form<br />Physiology<br />Biological function<br />Why do animals have such various appearances when they have such similar demands placed on them?<br />
  4. 4. 2. Explain how physical laws constrain animal form.<br />Animal Form and Function<br />
  5. 5. Physical constraints <br />Water<br />Shapes of animals that are swimmers<br />Why streamlined?<br />Size<br />Size of skeleton<br />Size of muscles<br />Relation to speed of organism<br />
  6. 6. 3. Use examples to illustrate how the size and shape of an animal’s body affect its interactions with the environment.<br />Animal Form and Function<br />
  7. 7. Exchange with the environment<br /><ul><li>Rate of exchange proportional to surface area
  8. 8. Amount of materials that must be exchanged is proportional to volume
  9. 9. Differences in unicellular vs. multicellular organisms
  10. 10. Interstitial fluid</li></li></ul><li>Fig. 40-4<br />External environment<br />CO2<br />Food<br />O2<br />Mouth<br />Animal<br />body<br />Respiratory<br />system<br />Blood<br />50 µm<br />0.5 cm<br />Lung tissue<br />Nutrients<br />Cells<br />Heart<br />Circulatory<br />system<br />10 µm<br />Interstitial<br />fluid<br />Digestive<br />system<br />Excretory<br />system<br />Lining of small intestine<br />Kidney tubules<br />Anus<br />Metabolic waste products<br />(nitrogenous waste)<br />Unabsorbed<br />matter (feces)<br />
  11. 11. 5. Define the terms tissue, organ, and organ system. <br />Animal Form and Function<br />
  12. 12. Hierarchical Organization<br /><ul><li>Cells
  13. 13. Tissues
  14. 14. Organs
  15. 15. Organ System
  16. 16. Digestive Circulatory Respiratory
  17. 17. Immune Excretory Endocrine
  18. 18. Reproductive Nervous Skeletal
  19. 19. Muscular Integumentary
  20. 20. Organism</li></li></ul><li>Epithelial Tissue<br /><ul><li>Sheets of tightly packed cells
  21. 21. Cells joined tightly together with little material between them
  22. 22. Functions
  23. 23. Protection
  24. 24. Absorption or secretion of chemicals
  25. 25. Lining of organs
  26. 26. Free surface
  27. 27. Exposed to air or fluid
  28. 28. Basement membrane
  29. 29. Extracellular matrix that cells at base of barrier are attached</li></li></ul><li>Classification of Epithelial tissue <br /><ul><li>Number of cell layers
  30. 30. Simple epithelial
  31. 31. Single layer of cells
  32. 32. Stratified epithelial
  33. 33. Multiple tiers of cells
  34. 34. Pseudostratified epithelial
  35. 35. Single-layered but appears stratified
  36. 36. Shape of cells
  37. 37. Cuboidal
  38. 38. Columnar
  39. 39. Squamous</li></li></ul><li>Epithelial Tissue<br />Epithelial Tissue<br />Cuboidal<br />epithelium<br />Pseudostratified<br />ciliated<br />columnar<br />epithelium<br />Simple<br />columnar<br />epithelium<br />Stratified<br />squamous<br />epithelium<br />Simple<br />squamous<br />epithelium<br />
  40. 40. 7. Describe the function of macrophages and fibroblasts within connective tissues.<br />Animal Form and Function<br />
  41. 41. Connective Tissue<br />Cells spread out scattered through extracellular matrix<br />Substances secreted by connective tissue cells<br />Web of fibers embedded in foundation<br />Structure<br />Protein<br />Function<br />Bind and support other cells<br />Fibroblasts<br />Secrete protein of extracellular fibers<br />Macrophages<br />Engulf bacteria & dead cells<br />Defense<br />
  42. 42. 6. Distinguish among collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers.<br />Animal Form and Function<br />
  43. 43. Classification of connective tissue<br /><ul><li>Collagenous fibers
  44. 44. Made of collagen
  45. 45. Nonelastic fibers
  46. 46. Do not tear easily
  47. 47. Elastic fibers
  48. 48. Long threads
  49. 49. Made of elastin
  50. 50. Rubbery
  51. 51. Reticular fibers
  52. 52. Very thin and branched
  53. 53. Collagen
  54. 54. Tightly woven fibers
  55. 55. Joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues</li></li></ul><li>Types of Connective Tissue<br />Loose Connective Tissue<br />Most widespread<br />All 3 fibers<br />Bind epithelium & hold organs in place<br />Fibrous Connective Tissue<br />Mostly collagenous fibers<br />Parallel fibers<br />Nonelastic strength<br />Tendons and ligaments<br />
  56. 56. Types of Connective Tissue<br />Bone<br />Mineralized connective tissue<br />Osteoblasts<br />Hard mineral and flexible collagen<br />Osteons <br />Concentric layers of mineralized matrix<br />Cartilage<br />Mainly collagenous fibers in rubbery matrix<br />Chondrocytes <br />Abundant in embryo skeletons<br />
  57. 57. Types of Connective Tissue<br /><ul><li>Adipose
  58. 58. Fat
  59. 59. Loose connective tissue
  60. 60. Cushions, insulates, stores fuel
  61. 61. Blood
  62. 62. Liquid extracellular matrix (plasma)
  63. 63. Erythrocytes
  64. 64. Leukocytes
  65. 65. Platelets</li></li></ul><li>Connective Tissue<br />Fig. 40-5c<br />Connective Tissue<br />Collagenous fiber<br />Chondrocytes<br />Loose<br />connective<br />tissue<br />Cartilage<br />120 µm<br />100 µm<br />Elastic fiber<br />Chondroitin<br />sulfate<br />Nuclei<br />Fat droplets<br />Fibrous<br />connective<br />tissue<br />Adipose<br />tissue<br />150 µm<br />30 µm<br />Osteon<br />White blood cells<br />Bone<br />Blood<br />55 µm<br />700 µm<br />Red blood<br />cells<br />Central canal<br />Plasma<br />
  66. 66. Muscle Tissue<br /><ul><li>Contract when stimulated
  67. 67. Contractile proteins
  68. 68. Actin & myosin
  69. 69. Skeletal muscle
  70. 70. Voluntary muscle
  71. 71. Striated
  72. 72. Cardiac muscle
  73. 73. Heart
  74. 74. Striated, intercalated discs
  75. 75. Involuntary
  76. 76. Smooth muscle
  77. 77. No striations
  78. 78. Lines walls of organs
  79. 79. Involuntary</li></li></ul><li>Fig. 40-5j<br />Muscle Tissue<br />Multiple<br />nuclei<br />Muscle fiber<br />Sarcomere<br />Skeletal<br />muscle<br />Nucleus<br />Intercalated<br />disk<br />100 µm<br />50 µm<br />Cardiac muscle <br />Nucleus<br />Smooth<br />muscle<br />Muscle<br />fibers<br />25 µm<br />
  80. 80. Nervous Tissue<br /><ul><li>Receives stimulus and transmits signals
  81. 81. Glial cells
  82. 82. Nourish, insulate, replenish neurons
  83. 83. Neuron
  84. 84. Nerve cell
  85. 85. Cell body with 2 or more extensions
  86. 86. Axons
  87. 87. Transmit signals
  88. 88. Dendrites
  89. 89. Receive signals</li></li></ul><li>Fig. 40-5n<br />Nervous Tissue<br />40 µm<br />Dendrites<br />Cell body<br />Axon<br />Glial cells<br />Neuron<br />Axons<br />Blood vessel<br />15 µm<br />
  90. 90. 9. Compare and contrast the nervous and endocrine systems with respect to specificity of target cells and speed and duration of response.<br />Animal Form and Function<br />
  91. 91. Coordination and Control in Animals<br /><ul><li>Endocrine System
  92. 92. Signaling molecules in bloodstream
  93. 93. Coordinates gradual changes
  94. 94. Growth, development, reproduction, digestion
  95. 95. Hormones
  96. 96. Only picked up by cells with the correct receptors
  97. 97. Slow acting but long lasting
  98. 98. Nervous System
  99. 99. Impulse travels along target cell only
  100. 100. Transmission is very fast and short lasting
  101. 101. Immediate response
  102. 102. Locomotion, behavior</li></li></ul><li>
  103. 103. 11. And 12.<br />Regulating the Internal Environment<br />
  104. 104. Homeostasis<br />Negative feedback<br />Change in environment triggers control mechanism to turn off stimulus<br />Prevent small changes to become big problems<br />Most body processes<br />Sweating<br />Positive feedback<br />Change in environment triggers control mechanism to increase stimulus<br />Childbirth <br />
  105. 105. Fig. 40-UN1<br />Homeostasis<br />Response/effector<br />Stimulus:<br />Perturbation/stress<br />Control center<br />Sensor/receptor<br />
  106. 106. 13. Define thermoregulation. Explain in general terms how endotherms and ectotherms manage their eat budgets.<br />Regulating the Internal Environment<br />
  107. 107. Thermoregulation<br />Five general adaptations help animals thermoregulate:<br />Insulation<br />Circulatory adaptations<br />Cooling by evaporative heat loss<br />Behavioral responses<br />Adjusting metabolic heat production<br />
  108. 108. 14. Name four physical processes by which animals exchange heat with their environment.<br />Regulating the Internal Environment<br />
  109. 109.
  110. 110. 16. Explain the role of vasoconstriction and vasodilation in modifying the transfer of body heat with the environment.<br />Regulating the Internal Environment<br />
  111. 111. 17. Describe how a countercurrent heat exchanger may function to retain heat within an animal body.<br />Regulating the Internal Environment<br />
  112. 112. Fig. 40-12<br />Canada goose<br />Bottlenose<br />dolphin<br />Blood flow<br />Vein<br />Artery<br />Vein<br />Artery<br />33º<br />35ºC<br />27º<br />30º<br />20º<br />18º<br />10º<br />9º<br />
  113. 113. 23. Describe the basic source of chemical energy and their fate in animal cells.<br />The Bioenergetics of Animals<br />
  114. 114. Fig. 40-17<br />Organic molecules<br />in food<br />External<br />environment<br />Animal<br />body<br />Digestion and<br />absorption<br />Heat<br />Energy lost<br />in feces<br />Nutrient molecules<br />in body cells<br />Energy lost in<br />nitrogenous<br />waste<br />Carbon<br />skeletons<br />Cellular<br />respiration<br />Heat<br />ATP<br />Biosynthesis<br />Cellular<br />work<br />Heat<br />Heat<br />
  115. 115. 25. Define metabolic rate and explain how it can be determined for animals.<br />The Bioenergetics of Animals<br />
  116. 116. Metabolic Rate<br />Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time<br />Measured in calories or Joules<br />Calculated – heat loss, O2 consumed, CO2 produced, food consumption<br />Endothermic<br />Warm-blooded<br />Heat generated by metabolism<br />Requires lots of energy<br />Exothermic<br />Cold-blooded<br />Requires less energy<br />Incapable of intense activity for long period of time<br />
  117. 117. 26. Distinguish between BMR and SMR.<br />The Bioenergetics of Animals<br />
  118. 118. Metabolic rate (cont)<br /><ul><li>Metabolic rate is inversely proportional to body size
  119. 119. Basal metabolic rate
  120. 120. Metabolic rate of nongrowing endotherm at rest, empty stomach, no stress
  121. 121. Human average = 1600 – 1800 kCal per day for males; 1300-1500 kCal per day for females
  122. 122. Standard metabolic rate
  123. 123. Metabolic rate of resting, fasting, non-stressed ectotherm
  124. 124. Alligator = 60 kCal per day</li></li></ul><li>Metabolic Rate (cont)<br /><ul><li>Maximum metabolic rate = peak activity times
  125. 125. Maximum rate = inversely proportional to duration of activity
  126. 126. Sustained activity depends on ATP supply and respiration rate
  127. 127. Age, sex, size, temperature, quality & quantity of food, activity level, oxygen availability, hormonal balance, time of day all affect metabolic rate</li></li></ul><li>28. Describe, in broad terms, how the energy budget of small and large endotherms differ.<br />The Bioenergetics of Animals<br />
  128. 128. Fig. 40-20<br />Endotherms<br />Ectotherm<br />Reproduction<br />800,000<br />Thermoregulation<br />Basal<br />(standard)<br />metabolism<br />Growth<br />Activity<br />Annual energy expenditure (kcal/hr)<br />340,000<br />8,000<br />4,000<br />4-kg male Adélie penguin<br />from Antarctica (brooding)<br />4-kg female eastern<br />indigo snake<br />60-kg female human<br />from temperate climate<br />0.025-kg female deer mouse<br />from temperate<br />North America<br />
  129. 129. Fig. 40-19<br />103<br />Elephant<br />Horse<br />102<br />Human<br />Sheep<br />10<br />BMR (L O2/hr) (Iog scale)<br />Dog<br />Cat<br />1<br />Rat<br />10–1<br />Ground squirrel<br />Shrew<br />Mouse<br />Harvest mouse<br />10–2<br />10–2<br />10<br />103<br />10–1<br />1<br />102<br />10–3<br />Body mass (kg) (log scale)<br />(a) Relationship of BMR to body size<br />8<br />Shrew<br />7<br />6<br />5<br />BMR (L O2/hr) (per kg)<br />4<br />Harvest mouse<br />3<br />Mouse<br />Sheep<br />2<br />Rat<br />Elephant<br />Human<br />Cat<br />1<br />Dog<br />Horse<br />Ground squirrel<br />0<br />10–3<br />10–2<br />102<br />103<br />10–1<br />1<br />10<br />Body mass (kg) (log scale)<br />(b) Relationship of BMR per kilogram of body mass to body size<br />

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