Chapter 33 & 34 (Animals)

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Chapter 33 & 34 (Animals)

  1. 1. Kingdom: Animals Domain Eukarya Domain Domain Domain Bacteria Archaea EukaryaAP Biology 2007-2008 Common ancestor
  2. 2. Animal Characteristics  Heterotrophs  must ingest others for nutrients  Multicellular  complex bodies  No cell walls  allows active movement  Sexual reproduction  no alternation of generations  no haploid gametophyteAP Biology
  3. 3. Animal Evolution Cnidaria Nematoda Annelida Echinodermata Porifera Platyhelminthes Mollusca Arthropoda Chordata sponges jellyfish flatworms roundworms mollusks segmented insects starfish vertebrates worms spiders  body & brain backbone redundancy, size,  mobility segmentation specialization,  mobility  body size endoskeleton coelom  digestive sys radial body cavity  body complexity  digestive & repro sys bilateral symmetry distinct body plan; cephalization tissues specialized structure & function, muscle & nerve tissue multicellularity specialization &  body complexity bilateralAP Biology Ancestral Protist
  4. 4. acoelomate Body Cavity ectoderm mesoderm Space for organ endoderm system development  increase digestive & reproductive systems pseudocoelomate  increase food ectoderm capacity & digestion mesoderm  increase gamete endoderm production pseudocoel Coelem  mesoderm & endoderm interact during development coelomate  allows complex ectoderm structures to develop mesoderm in digestive system coelom cavity  ex. stomach endodermAP Biology protostome vs. deuterostome
  5. 5. Invertebrate: Porifera food taken into each  Sponges cell by endocytosis  no distinct tissues or organs  do have specialized cells  no symmetry  sessile (as adults)AP Biology
  6. 6. Invertebrate: Cnidaria  Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral  tissues, but no organs  two cell layers polyp medusa  radial symmetry  predators  tentacles surround gut opening  extracellular digestion  release enzymes into gut cavityAP Biology  absorption by cells lining gut
  7. 7. Stinging cells of Cnidarians mouth tentacles sensory cell discharged stinging nematocyst cell hydra undischarged trigger nematocyst stinging cell with nematocystAP Biology
  8. 8. Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes  Flatworms  tapeworm, planaria  mostly parasitic  bilaterally symmetrical  have right & left & then have head (anterior) end & posterior end Animals nowface the world  cephalization = development of brain head on!  concentration of sense organs in head  increase specialization in body plan ectoderm mesoderm AP Biology acoelomate endoderm
  9. 9. Invertebrate: Nematoda  Roundworms  bilaterally symmetrical  body cavity C. elegans  pseudocoelom = simple body cavity  digestive system  tube running through length of body (mouth to anus)  many are parasitic  hookwormAP Biology
  10. 10. Invertebrate: Mollusca  Mollusks  slugs, snails, clams, squid  bilaterally symmetrical (with exceptions)  soft bodies, mostly protected by hard shells  true coelem  increases complexity & specialization of internal organsAP Biology
  11. 11. Invertebrate: Annelida  Segmented worms  earthworms, leeches  segments  increase mobility  redundancy in body sections  bilaterally symmetrical  true coelem fan worm leechAP Biology
  12. 12. Invertebrate: Arthropoda  Spiders, insects, crustaceans  most successful animal phylum  bilaterally symmetrical  segmented  specialized segments  allows jointed appendages  exoskeleton  chitin + proteinAP Biology
  13. 13. Arthropod groupsarachnids8 legs, 2 body partsspiders, ticks, scorpions crustaceans gills, 2 pairs antennae crab, lobster, barnacles, shrmp insectsAP Biology 6 legs, 3 body parts
  14. 14. Invertebrate: Echinodermata  Starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber  radially symmetrical as adults  spiny endoskeleton  deuterostome loss of bilateral symmetry?AP Biology
  15. 15. Invertebrate quick check… Invertebrates: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata  Which group includes snails, clams, and squid?  Which group is the sponges?  Which are the flatworms? …segmented worms? …roundworms?  Which group has jointed appendages & an exoskeleton?  Which two groups have radial symmetry?  What is the adaptive advantage of bilateral symmetry?  Which group has no symmetry?AP Biology
  16. 16. Chordata  Vertebrates  fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals hollow dorsal  internal bony skeleton nerve cord becomes brain  backbone encasing & spinal cord spinal column  skull-encased brain  deuterostome becomes gills or Eustachian tube Oh, look… pharyngeal your first pouches baby picture! becomes postanal vertebrae becomes tail tail notochordAP Biology or tailbone
  17. 17. 450 mya salmon, trout, sharks Vertebrates: Fish  Characteristics gills  body structure  bony & cartilaginous skeleton  jaws & paired appendages (fins) body  scales  body function  gills for gas exchange  two-chambered heart; single loop blood circulation  ectotherms  reproduction  external fertilization  external development in AP Biology aquatic egg
  18. 18. Transition to LandEvolution of tetrapods Humerus Femur Pelvis Ulna ShoulderTibia Radius Fibula Lobe-finned fishPelvis Femur Humerus Shoulder Radius Tibia UlnaFibula Early amphibian AP Biology
  19. 19. 350 mya frogs Vertebrates: Amphibian salamanders toads  Characteristics lung  body structure buccal cavity  legs (tetrapods)  moist skin glottis closed  body function  lungs (positive pressure) & diffusion through skin for gas exchange  three-chambered heart; veins from lungs back to heart  ectotherms  reproduction  external fertilization  external development in aquatic egg  metamorphosis (tadpole to adult) AP Biology
  20. 20. 250 mya dinosaurs, turtles Vertebrates: Reptiles lizards, snakes alligators, crocodile  Characteristics  body structure  dry skin, scales, armor  body function  lungs for gas exchange  thoracic breathing; negative pressure  three-chambered heart  ectotherms leathery embryo shell  reproduction amnion  internal fertilization  external development in amniotic egg chorion allantois AP Biology yolk sac
  21. 21. 150 mya finches, hawk Vertebrates: Birds (Aves) ostrich, turkey  Characteristics  body structure  feathers & wings  thin, hollow bone; flight skeleton  body function  very efficient lungs & air sacs  four-chambered heart  endotherms  reproduction trachea lung  internal fertilization anterior  external development in air sacs amniotic egg posterior AP Biology air sacs
  22. 22. 220 mya / 65 mya mice, ferret Vertebrates: Mammals elephants, bats whales, humans  Characteristics  body structure  hair  specialized teeth muscles contract  body function  lungs, diaphragm; negative pressure  four-chambered heart diaphragm  endotherms contracts  reproduction  internal fertilization  internal development in uterus  nourishment through placenta  birth live young  mammary glands make milk AP Biology
  23. 23. Vertebrates: Mammals  Sub-groups  monotremes  egg-laying mammals  lack placenta & true nipples  duckbilled platypus, echidna  marsupials  pouched mammals  offspring feed from nipples in pouch  short-lived placenta  koala, kangaroo, opossum  placental  true placenta  nutrient & waste filter  shrews, bats, whales, humansAP Biology
  24. 24. Vertebrate quick check…  Which vertebrates lay eggs with shells?  Which vertebrates are covered with scales?  What adaptations do birds have for flying?  What kind of symmetry do all vertebrates have?  Which vertebrates are ectothermic and which are endothermic  Why must amphibians live near water?  What reproductive adaptations made mammals very successful?  What characteristics distinguish the 3 sub- groups of mammals?AP Biology
  25. 25. That’s the buzz! Any Questions?AP Biology 2007-2008

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