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Chapter 22<br />Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life<br />
Endless Forms Most Beautiful<br />A new era of biology began in 1859 when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species <...
Darwin noted that current species are descendants of ancestral species<br />Evolution can be defined by Darwin’s phrase de...
Concept 22.1<br />The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species<b...
Darwin’s revolutionary ideas were influenced by other scientists’ ideas about Earth and life.<br />
Influence of Fossils<br />Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, whi...
Historical Context of Darwin’s Life and Ideas<br />
You should now be able to:<br />Describe the contributions to evolutionary theory made by Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lyell, Lamarck...
Chapter 22.2<br />Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and d...
Darwin’s Life<br />Always interested in nature<br />First studied medicine and then theology<br />Took unpaid position as ...
Focused on Adaptation<br />
Path to The Origin of Species<br />1844: Wrote “essay” on the origin of species and natural selection.<br />1858: Received...
The Origin of Species<br />Darwin developed two main ideas:<br />Descent with modification explains life’s unity and diver...
Darwin’s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of Linnaeus<br />
Darwin further examined how organisms change through artificial selection<br />
Observations<br />Members of a population often vary greatly in their traits<br />Traits are inherited from parents to off...
Inferences<br />Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given ...
Natural Selection: A Summary<br />Individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rat...
Final Thoughts:<br />Note that individuals do not evolve; populations evolve over time<br />Natural selection can only inc...
You should now be able to:<br />Explain what Darwin meant by “descent with modification”<br />List and explain Darwin’s fo...
Concept 22.3<br />Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence<br />
New discoveries continue to fill the gaps identified by Darwin in The Origin of Species<br />
Example - HIV:<br />The evolution of drug-resistant HIV<br />
Natural selection does not create new traits, but edits or selects for traits already present in the population<br />
Example – The Fossil Record<br />The fossil record provides evidence of the extinction of species, the origin of new group...
Transitional Forms<br />
Example - Homologies<br />Anatomical and molecular<br />Homologous structures are anatomical resemblances that represent v...
Vestigial structures are remnants of features that served important functions in the organism’s ancestors<br />
The Darwinian concept of an evolutionary tree of life can explain homologies<br />Evolutionary trees are hypotheses about ...
Convergent Evolution<br />Convergent evolution is the evolution of similar, or analogous,features in distantly related gro...
Biogeography<br />The geographic distribution of species<br />Islands have many endemic species that are often closely rel...
You should now be able to:<br />Explain why an individual organism cannot evolve<br />Describe at least four lines of evid...
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OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)

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OHHS AP Bio Chapter 22 (Class Presentation)

  1. 1. Chapter 22<br />Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life<br />
  2. 2. Endless Forms Most Beautiful<br />A new era of biology began in 1859 when Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species <br />The Origin of Species focused biologists’ attention on the great diversity of organisms<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Darwin noted that current species are descendants of ancestral species<br />Evolution can be defined by Darwin’s phrase descent with modification<br />
  5. 5. Concept 22.1<br />The Darwinian revolution challenged traditional views of a young Earth inhabited by unchanging species<br />
  6. 6. Darwin’s revolutionary ideas were influenced by other scientists’ ideas about Earth and life.<br />
  7. 7. Influence of Fossils<br />Fossils are remains or traces of organisms from the past, usually found in sedimentary rock, which appears in layers or strata<br />Paleontology, largely developed by French scientist Georges Cuvier<br />He advocated catastrophism – boundary between each layer represents a catastrophe.<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Historical Context of Darwin’s Life and Ideas<br />
  10. 10. You should now be able to:<br />Describe the contributions to evolutionary theory made by Linnaeus, Cuvier, Lyell, Lamarck, Malthus, and Wallace<br />Describe Lamarck’s theories, and explain why they have been rejected<br />
  11. 11. Chapter 22.2<br />Descent with modification by natural selection explains the adaptations of organisms and the unity and diversity of life<br />
  12. 12. Darwin’s Life<br />Always interested in nature<br />First studied medicine and then theology<br />Took unpaid position as naturalist on the 5-year voyage of the Beagle<br />
  13. 13.
  14. 14. Focused on Adaptation<br />
  15. 15. Path to The Origin of Species<br />1844: Wrote “essay” on the origin of species and natural selection.<br />1858: Received manuscript from Alfred Russell Wallace.<br />1859: Finished and published The Origin of Species<br />
  16. 16. The Origin of Species<br />Darwin developed two main ideas:<br />Descent with modification explains life’s unity and diversity<br />Natural selection is a cause of adaptive evolution<br />
  17. 17. Darwin’s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of Linnaeus<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Darwin further examined how organisms change through artificial selection<br />
  20. 20. Observations<br />Members of a population often vary greatly in their traits<br />Traits are inherited from parents to offspring<br />All species are capable of producing more offspring than the environment can support<br />Owing to lack of food or other resources, many of these offspring do not survive<br />
  21. 21. Inferences<br />Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals<br />This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations<br />
  22. 22. Natural Selection: A Summary<br />Individuals with certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals<br />
  23. 23. Final Thoughts:<br />Note that individuals do not evolve; populations evolve over time<br />Natural selection can only increase or decrease heritable traits in a population<br />Adaptations vary with different environments<br />
  24. 24. You should now be able to:<br />Explain what Darwin meant by “descent with modification”<br />List and explain Darwin’s four observations and two inferences<br />
  25. 25. Concept 22.3<br />Evolution is supported by an overwhelming amount of scientific evidence<br />
  26. 26. New discoveries continue to fill the gaps identified by Darwin in The Origin of Species<br />
  27. 27. Example - HIV:<br />The evolution of drug-resistant HIV<br />
  28. 28.
  29. 29. Natural selection does not create new traits, but edits or selects for traits already present in the population<br />
  30. 30. Example – The Fossil Record<br />The fossil record provides evidence of the extinction of species, the origin of new groups, and changes within groups over time<br />
  31. 31. Transitional Forms<br />
  32. 32. Example - Homologies<br />Anatomical and molecular<br />Homologous structures are anatomical resemblances that represent variations on a structural theme present in a common ancestor<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. Vestigial structures are remnants of features that served important functions in the organism’s ancestors<br />
  36. 36. The Darwinian concept of an evolutionary tree of life can explain homologies<br />Evolutionary trees are hypotheses about the relationships among different groups<br />Evolutionary trees can be made using different types of data, for example, anatomical and DNA sequence data<br />
  37. 37.
  38. 38. Convergent Evolution<br />Convergent evolution is the evolution of similar, or analogous,features in distantly related groups<br />
  39. 39.
  40. 40. Biogeography<br />The geographic distribution of species<br />Islands have many endemic species that are often closely related to species on the nearest mainland or island<br />An understanding of continent movement and modern distribution of species allows us to predict when and where different groups evolved<br />
  41. 41. You should now be able to:<br />Explain why an individual organism cannot evolve<br />Describe at least four lines of evidence for evolution by natural selection<br />

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