Chapter 12 Presentation

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Chapter 12 Presentation

  1. 1. Chapter 12 The Cell Cycle
  2. 2. Overview: The Key Roles of Cell Division The ability of organisms to reproduce best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter The continuity of life is based on the reproduction of cells, or cell division Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Fig. 12-1
  4. 4. In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entire organism Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for: Development from a fertilized cell Growth Repair Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle , the life of a cell from formation to its own division Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Fig. 12-2 100 µm 200 µm 20 µm (a) Reproduction (b) Growth and development (c) Tissue renewal
  6. 6. Fig. 12-2a 100 µm (a) Reproduction
  7. 7. Fig. 12-2b 200 µm (b) Growth and development
  8. 8. Fig. 12-2c 20 µm (c) Tissue renewal
  9. 9. Concept 12.1: Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells Most cell division results in daughter cells with identical genetic information, DNA A special type of division produces nonidentical daughter cells (gametes, or sperm and egg cells) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material All the DNA in a cell constitutes the cell’s genome A genome can consist of a single DNA molecule (common in prokaryotic cells) or a number of DNA molecules (common in eukaryotic cells) DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. Fig. 12-3 20 µm
  12. 12. Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus Somatic cells (nonreproductive cells) have two sets of chromosomes Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin , a complex of DNA and protein that condenses during cell division Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Distribution of Chromosomes During Eukaryotic Cell Division In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids , which separate during cell division The centromere is the narrow “waist” of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. Fig. 12-4 0.5 µm Chromosomes Chromosome duplication (including DNA synthesis) Chromo- some arm Centromere Sister chromatids DNA molecules Separation of sister chromatids Centromere Sister chromatids
  15. 15. Eukaryotic cell division consists of: Mitosis , the division of the nucleus Cytokinesis , the division of the cytoplasm Gametes are produced by a variation of cell division called meiosis Meiosis yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes, half as many as the parent cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. Concept 12.2: The mitotic phase alternates with interphase in the cell cycle In 1882, the German anatomist Walther Flemming developed dyes to observe chromosomes during mitosis and cytokinesis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  17. 17. Phases of the Cell Cycle The cell cycle consists of Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis) Interphase (cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division) Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  18. 18. Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases: G 1 phase (“first gap”) S phase (“synthesis”) G 2 phase (“second gap”) The cell grows during all three phases, but chromosomes are duplicated only during the S phase Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Fig. 12-5 S (DNA synthesis) MITOTIC (M) PHASE Mitosis Cytokinesis G 1 G 2 INTERPHASE
  20. 20. Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases: Prophase Prometaphase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Cytokinesis is well underway by late telophase BioFlix: Mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  21. 21. Fig. 12-6 G 2 of Interphase Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Chromatin (duplicated) Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Early mitotic spindle Aster Centromere Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Prophase Prometaphase Fragments of nuclear envelope Nonkinetochore microtubules Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubule Metaphase Metaphase plate Spindle Centrosome at one spindle pole Anaphase Daughter chromosomes Telophase and Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Nuclear envelope forming
  22. 22. Prophase Fig. 12-6a Prometaphase G 2 of Interphase
  23. 23. Fig. 12-6b Prometaphase Prophase G 2 of Interphase Nonkinetochore microtubules Fragments of nuclear envelope Aster Centromere Early mitotic spindle Chromatin (duplicated) Centrosomes (with centriole pairs) Nucleolus Nuclear envelope Plasma membrane Chromosome, consisting of two sister chromatids Kinetochore Kinetochore microtubule
  24. 24. Fig. 12-6c Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis
  25. 25. Fig. 12-6d Metaphase Anaphase Telophase and Cytokinesis Cleavage furrow Nucleolus forming Metaphase plate Centrosome at one spindle pole Spindle Daughter chromosomes Nuclear envelope forming
  26. 26. The Mitotic Spindle: A Closer Look The mitotic spindle is an apparatus of microtubules that controls chromosome movement during mitosis During prophase, assembly of spindle microtubules begins in the centrosome , the microtubule organizing center The centrosome replicates, forming two centrosomes that migrate to opposite ends of the cell, as spindle microtubules grow out from them Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  27. 27. An aster (a radial array of short microtubules) extends from each centrosome The spindle includes the centrosomes, the spindle microtubules, and the asters Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  28. 28. During prometaphase, some spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of chromosomes and begin to move the chromosomes At metaphase, the chromosomes are all lined up at the metaphase plate , the midway point between the spindle’s two poles Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  29. 29. Fig. 12-7 Microtubules Chromosomes Sister chromatids Aster Metaphase plate Centrosome Kineto- chores Kinetochore microtubules Overlapping nonkinetochore microtubules Centrosome 1 µm 0.5 µm
  30. 30. In anaphase, sister chromatids separate and move along the kinetochore microtubules toward opposite ends of the cell The microtubules shorten by depolymerizing at their kinetochore ends Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  31. 31. Fig. 12-8 EXPERIMENT Kinetochore RESULTS CONCLUSION Spindle pole Mark Chromosome movement Kinetochore Microtubule Motor protein Chromosome Tubulin subunits
  32. 32. Fig. 12-8a Kinetochore Spindle pole Mark EXPERIMENT RESULTS
  33. 33. Fig. 12-8b Kinetochore Microtubule Tubulin Subunits Chromosome Chromosome movement Motor protein CONCLUSION
  34. 34. Nonkinetochore microtubules from opposite poles overlap and push against each other, elongating the cell In telophase, genetically identical daughter nuclei form at opposite ends of the cell Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  35. 35. Cytokinesis: A Closer Look In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage , forming a cleavage furrow In plant cells, a cell plate forms during cytokinesis Animation: Cytokinesis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  36. 36. Video: Sea Urchin (Time Lapse) Video: Animal Mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  37. 37. Fig. 12-9 Cleavage furrow 100 µm Contractile ring of microfilaments Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell Cell plate Daughter cells New cell wall 1 µm
  38. 38. Cleavage furrow Fig. 12-9a 100 µm Daughter cells (a) Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM) Contractile ring of microfilaments
  39. 39. Fig. 12-9b Daughter cells (b) Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM) Vesicles forming cell plate Wall of parent cell New cell wall Cell plate 1 µm
  40. 40. Fig. 12-10 Chromatin condensing Metaphase Anaphase Telophase Prometaphase Nucleus Prophase 1 2 3 5 4 Nucleolus Chromosomes Cell plate 10 µm
  41. 41. Fig. 12-10a Nucleus Prophase 1 Nucleolus Chromatin condensing
  42. 42. Fig. 12-10b Prometaphase 2 Chromosomes
  43. 43. Fig. 12-10c Metaphase 3
  44. 44. Fig. 12-10d Anaphase 4
  45. 45. Fig. 12-10e Telophase 5 Cell plate 10 µm
  46. 46. Binary Fission Prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) reproduce by a type of cell division called binary fission In binary fission, the chromosome replicates (beginning at the origin of replication ), and the two daughter chromosomes actively move apart Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  47. 47. Fig. 12-11-1 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall
  48. 48. Fig. 12-11-2 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Origin Origin
  49. 49. Fig. 12-11-3 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Origin Origin
  50. 50. Fig. 12-11-4 Origin of replication Two copies of origin E. coli cell Bacterial chromosome Plasma membrane Cell wall Origin Origin
  51. 51. The Evolution of Mitosis Since prokaryotes evolved before eukaryotes, mitosis probably evolved from binary fission Certain protists exhibit types of cell division that seem intermediate between binary fission and mitosis Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  52. 52. Fig. 12-12 (a) Bacteria Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes Microtubules Intact nuclear envelope (b) Dinoflagellates Kinetochore microtubule Intact nuclear envelope (c) Diatoms and yeasts Kinetochore microtubule Fragments of nuclear envelope (d) Most eukaryotes
  53. 53. Fig. 12-12ab Bacterial chromosome Chromosomes Microtubules (a) Bacteria (b) Dinoflagellates Intact nuclear envelope
  54. 54. Fig. 12-12cd Kinetochore microtubule (c) Diatoms and yeasts Kinetochore microtubule (d) Most eukaryotes Fragments of nuclear envelope Intact nuclear envelope
  55. 55. Concept 12.3: The eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by a molecular control system The frequency of cell division varies with the type of cell These cell cycle differences result from regulation at the molecular level Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  56. 56. Evidence for Cytoplasmic Signals The cell cycle appears to be driven by specific chemical signals present in the cytoplasm Some evidence for this hypothesis comes from experiments in which cultured mammalian cells at different phases of the cell cycle were fused to form a single cell with two nuclei Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  57. 57. Fig. 12-13 Experiment 1 Experiment 2 EXPERIMENT RESULTS S G 1 M G 1 M M S S When a cell in the S phase was fused with a cell in G 1 , the G 1 nucleus immediately entered the S phase—DNA was synthesized. When a cell in the M phase was fused with a cell in G 1 , the G 1 nucleus immediately began mitosis—a spindle formed and chromatin condensed, even though the chromosome had not been duplicated.
  58. 58. The Cell Cycle Control System The sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by a distinct cell cycle control system , which is similar to a clock The cell cycle control system is regulated by both internal and external controls The clock has specific checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  59. 59. Fig. 12-14 S G 1 M checkpoint G 2 M Control system G 1 checkpoint G 2 checkpoint
  60. 60. For many cells, the G 1 checkpoint seems to be the most important one If a cell receives a go-ahead signal at the G 1 checkpoint, it will usually complete the S, G 2 , and M phases and divide If the cell does not receive the go-ahead signal, it will exit the cycle, switching into a nondividing state called the G 0 phase Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  61. 61. Fig. 12-15 G 1 G 0 G 1 checkpoint Cell receives a go-ahead signal G 1 (b) Cell does not receive a go-ahead signal
  62. 62. The Cell Cycle Clock: Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases Two types of regulatory proteins are involved in cell cycle control: cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) The activity of cyclins and Cdks fluctuates during the cell cycle MPF (maturation-promoting factor) is a cyclin-Cdk complex that triggers a cell’s passage past the G 2 checkpoint into the M phase Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  63. 63. Fig. 12-16 Protein kinase activity ( – ) % of dividing cells ( – ) Time (min) 300 200 400 100 0 1 2 3 4 5 30 500 0 20 10 RESULTS
  64. 64. Fig. 12-17 M G 1 S G 2 M G 1 S G 2 M G 1 MPF activity Cyclin concentration Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle Degraded cyclin Cdk G 1 S G 2 M Cdk G 2 checkpoint Cyclin is degraded Cyclin MPF (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle Cyclin accumulation
  65. 65. Fig. 12-17a Time (a) Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration during the cell cycle Cyclin concentration MPF activity M M M S S G 1 G 1 G 1 G 2 G 2
  66. 66. Fig. 12-17b Cyclin is degraded Cdk MPF Cdk M S G 1 G 2 checkpoint Degraded cyclin Cyclin (b) Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle G 2 Cyclin accumulation
  67. 67. Stop and Go Signs: Internal and External Signals at the Checkpoints An example of an internal signal is that kinetochores not attached to spindle microtubules send a molecular signal that delays anaphase Some external signals are growth factors , proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide For example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the division of human fibroblast cells in culture Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  68. 68. Fig. 12-18 Petri plate Scalpels Cultured fibroblasts Without PDGF cells fail to divide With PDGF cells prolifer- ate 10 µm
  69. 69. Another example of external signals is density-dependent inhibition , in which crowded cells stop dividing Most animal cells also exhibit anchorage dependence , in which they must be attached to a substratum in order to divide Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  70. 70. Fig. 12-19 Anchorage dependence Density-dependent inhibition Density-dependent inhibition (a) Normal mammalian cells (b) Cancer cells 25 µm 25 µm
  71. 71. Cancer cells exhibit neither density-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  72. 72. Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells Cancer cells do not respond normally to the body’s control mechanisms Cancer cells may not need growth factors to grow and divide: They may make their own growth factor They may convey a growth factor’s signal without the presence of the growth factor They may have an abnormal cell cycle control system Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  73. 73. A normal cell is converted to a cancerous cell by a process called transformation Cancer cells form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is called a benign tumor Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize , exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form secondary tumors Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  74. 74. Fig. 12-20 Tumor A tumor grows from a single cancer cell. Glandular tissue Lymph vessel Blood vessel Metastatic tumor Cancer cell Cancer cells invade neigh- boring tissue. Cancer cells spread to other parts of the body. Cancer cells may survive and establish a new tumor in another part of the body. 1 2 3 4
  75. 75. Fig. 12-UN1 Telophase and Cytokinesis Anaphase Metaphase Prometaphase Prophase MITOTIC (M) PHASE Cytokinesis Mitosis S G 1 G 2 INTERPHASE
  76. 76. Fig. 12-UN2
  77. 77. Fig. 12-UN3
  78. 78. Fig. 12-UN4
  79. 79. Fig. 12-UN5
  80. 80. Fig. 12-UN6
  81. 81. You should now be able to: Describe the structural organization of the prokaryotic genome and the eukaryotic genome List the phases of the cell cycle; describe the sequence of events during each phase List the phases of mitosis and describe the events characteristic of each phase Draw or describe the mitotic spindle, including centrosomes, kinetochore microtubules, nonkinetochore microtubules, and asters Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings
  82. 82. Compare cytokinesis in animals and plants Describe the process of binary fission in bacteria and explain how eukaryotic mitosis may have evolved from binary fission Explain how the abnormal cell division of cancerous cells escapes normal cell cycle controls Distinguish between benign, malignant, and metastatic tumors Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings

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