Cell Theory Notes


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Cell Theory Notes

  1. 1. The cell theory <ul><li>1. All living things are composed of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. </li></ul><ul><li>3. New cells are produced from existing cells. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Characteristics of all cells <ul><li>Surrounded by cell membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contain DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Contain cytoplasm </li></ul>
  3. 3. Examples of Cells Amoeba Proteus Plant Stem Red Blood Cell Nerve Cell Bacteria
  4. 4. Prokaryotic <ul><li>No nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Few internal structures- have simple ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller and simpler than eukaroytic cells </li></ul><ul><li>One-celled organisms, Bacteria </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/prokaryotic_cells.html
  5. 5. Prokaryotic Cells <ul><li>Some use flagellum for locomotion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>threadlike structures protruding from cell surface </li></ul></ul>Bacterial cell wall Flagellin Rotary motor Sheath
  6. 6. Eukaryotic <ul><li>Have a membrane bound nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Contain organelles surrounded by membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Most living organisms – lots of variety </li></ul><ul><li>Larger and more complex than prokaryotes </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/C004535/eukaryotic_cells.html
  7. 7. <ul><li>Unicellular Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellular Organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Levels of Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organ Systems </li></ul></ul></ul>Section 7- 4 Section Outline Go to Section: DIVERSITY OF LIFE
  8. 8. Cell Wall <ul><li>Most commonly found in plant cells & bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Supports & protects cells </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  9. 9. Cell Membrane <ul><li>Outer membrane of cell that controls movement in and out of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Double layer </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma Membrane = selectively permeable boundary between the cell and the environment </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  10. 10. Plasma Membrane
  11. 11. Nucleus <ul><li>Directs cell activities </li></ul><ul><li>Separated from cytoplasm by nuclear membrane </li></ul><ul><li>Contains genetic material - DNA </li></ul>
  12. 12. Nuclear Membrane <ul><li>Surrounds nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of two layers </li></ul><ul><li>Openings allow material to enter and leave nucleus </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  13. 13. Chromosomes/Chromatin <ul><li>In nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Made of DNA and protein </li></ul><ul><li>Contain instructions for traits & characteristics </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  14. 14. Nucleolus <ul><li>Inside nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>Makes ribosomes which then leave the nucleus </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  15. 15. Mitochondrion
  16. 16. Mitochondria <ul><li>Produces energy through chemical reactions – cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Converts glucose into ATP </li></ul><ul><li>Cristae – inner membrane </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  17. 17. Chloroplast <ul><li>Found in plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Contains green chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Where photosynthesis takes place </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  18. 18. Vacuoles <ul><li>Membrane-bound sacs for storage, digestion, and waste removal </li></ul><ul><li>Contains water solution </li></ul><ul><li>Help plants maintain shape- large central vacuole </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  19. 19. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>Moves materials around in cell </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth type: lacks ribosomes </li></ul><ul><li>Rough type (pictured): ribosomes embedded in surface </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  20. 20. Cytomembrane System <ul><li>Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) = a system of tubes and sacs formed by membranes (an enclosed space) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Rough = with bound ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--transports proteins to the Golgi body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth = without bound ribosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>--functions in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Lysosome <ul><li>Digestive sac for proteins, fats, and carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Transports undigested material to cell membrane for removal </li></ul><ul><li>Cell breaks down if lysosome explodes </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  22. 22. Centrioles <ul><li>Assemble microtubules during cell division </li></ul><ul><li>Barrel shaped – pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Found in animal cells </li></ul>
  23. 23. Golgi Bodies <ul><li>Protein 'packaging plant’ </li></ul><ul><li>Modifies protein </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attach carbohydrates and lipids to the protein </li></ul></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  24. 24. Vesicles move from ER to Golgi
  25. 25. Ribosomes <ul><li>Each cell contains thousands </li></ul><ul><li>Make proteins </li></ul><ul><li>Found on Rough ER & floating throughout the cell </li></ul>http://library.thinkquest.org/12413/structures.html
  26. 26. Cytoskeleton Actin Microtubules Intermediate filaments
  27. 27. Cytoskeleton <ul><li>Network of protein fibers supporting cell shape and anchoring organelles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microfilaments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Actin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support of cell </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hollow tubes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movement of organelles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forms cilia, flagella, centrioles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Section 7-2 Figure 7-7 Cytoskeleton Go to Section: Cell membrane Endoplasmic reticulum Microtubule Microfilament Ribosomes Michondrion
  29. 29. “ Typical” Animal Cell http://web.jjay.cuny.edu /~ acarpi/NSC/images/cell.gif
  30. 30. “ Typical” Plant Cell http://waynesword.palomar.edu/images/plant3.gif
  31. 31. Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Cell membrane Ribosomes Cell wall Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Animal Cells Plant Cells Lysosomes Cell membrane Ribosomes Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton Section 7-2 Venn Diagrams Go to Section: Cell Wall Chloroplasts