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Biology_Cell Biology

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Biology_Cell Biology

  1. 1. Cells & Cell Organelles Doing Life’s WorkAP Biology
  2. 2. bacteria Types of cells cells Prokaryote - no organelles Eukaryotes - organelles animal cells plant cellsRegents Biology
  3. 3. Cell size comparison Animal cell most bacteria Bacterial cell  1-10 microns eukaryotic cells  10-100 microns  micron = micrometer = 1/1,000,000 meterRegents Biology  diameter of human hair = ~20 microns
  4. 4. Why study cells?  Cells  Tissues  Organs  Bodies  bodies are made up of cells  cells do all the work of life!Regents Biology
  5. 5. The Work of Life  What jobs do cells have to do for an organism to live…  “breathe”  gas exchange: O2 in vs. CO2 out  eat  take in & digest food  make energy  ATP ATP  build molecules  proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acids  remove wastes  control internal conditions  homeostasis  respond to external environment  build more cells  growth, repair, reproduction & developmentRegents Biology
  6. 6. The Jobs of Cells  Cells have 3 main jobs  make energy  need energy for all activities Our organelles  need to clean up waste produced do all these jobs! while making energy  make proteins  proteins do all the work in a cell, so we need lots of them  make more cells  for growth  to replace damaged or diseased cellsRegents Biology
  7. 7. Organelles  Organelles do the work of cells  each structure has a job to do  keeps the cell alive; keeps you alive They’re like mini-organs!Regents Biology Model Animal Cell
  8. 8. 1. Cells need power!  Making energy  to fuel daily life & growth, the cell must…  take in food & digest it  take in oxygen (O2) ATP  make ATP  remove waste  organelles that do this work…  cell membrane  lysosomes  vacuoles & vesicles  mitochondriaRegents Biology
  9. 9. phosphate Cell membrane “head” Function  separates cell from outside  controls what enters or leaves cell lipid “tail”  O2, CO2, food, H2O, nutrients, waste  recognizes signals from other cells  allows communication between cells Structure  double layer of fat  phospholipid bilayer  receptor molecules  proteinsRegents Biology
  10. 10. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding organelles in placecell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  11. 11. Vacuoles & vesicles  Function  moving material around cell  storagesmall food  Structure particle  membrane sac vacuole filled w/ digestive enzymes vesicle vesicle filled w/ digested nutrientsRegents Biology
  12. 12. Food & water storage food vacuole plant cellscentral vacuole animal cells contractileRegents Biology vacuole
  13. 13. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding organelles in placevacuole & vesiclestransport inside cellsstoragecell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  14. 14.  Function Lysosomes  digest food  used to make energy  clean up & recycle  digest broken organelles  Structure  membrane sac of lysosomes digestive enzymes digesting broken organellessmall food vacuole particle digesting foodRegents Biology
  15. 15. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recyclingtransport inside cellsstoragecell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  16. 16. Mitochondria Function  make ATP energy from cellular respiration  sugar + O2  ATP  fuels the work of life Structure ATP  double membrane in both animal & plant cellsRegents Biology
  17. 17. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recyclingtransport inside cellsstoragemitochondriamake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  18. 18. Plants make energy two ways! Mitochondria  make energy from sugar + O2 ATP  cellular respiration  sugar + O2  ATP Chloroplasts  make energy + sugar from sunlight  photosynthesis sugar  sunlight + CO2  ATP & sugar  ATP = active energy  sugar = stored energy ATP  build leaves & roots & fruit out of the sugarsRegents Biology
  19. 19. Mitochondria are in both cells!! animal cells plant cells mitochondria chloroplastRegents Biology
  20. 20. cytoplasmjelly-like material around organelles central vacuole storage: food, water or wastemitochondria cell wallmake ATP in support cellular respirationcell membrane chloroplastcell boundary make ATP & sugars incontrols movement photosynthesis of materials in & out lysosomerecognizes signalsRegents Biology digestion & clean up
  21. 21. 2. Cells need workers = proteins!  Making proteins  to run daily life & growth, the cell must…  read genes (DNA)  build proteins  structural proteins (muscle fibers, hair, skin, claws)  enzymes (speed up chemical reactions)  signals (hormones) & receptors  organelles that do this work…  nucleus  ribosomes  endoplasmic reticulum (ER)  Golgi apparatusRegents Biology
  22. 22. Proteins do all the work! one of the major job of cells is to make proteins, because… proteins do all the work! structural enzymes signals receptors DNA proteins cellsRegents Biology
  23. 23. Nucleus  Function  control center of cell  protects DNA  instructions for building proteins  Structure  nuclear membrane  nucleolus  ribosome factory  chromosomes  DNARegents Biology
  24. 24. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome nucleolus organelles in place food digestion produces garbage disposal & ribosomesvacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell chromosomes DNAmitochondriamake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  25. 25. Ribosomes  Function  protein factories  read instructions to build proteins from DNA  Structure  some free in cytoplasm  some attached to ER Ribosomes on ERRegents Biology
  26. 26. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome nucleolus organelles in place food digestion produces garbage disposal & ribosomesvacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell ribosomesmitochondria build proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundarycontrols movement of materials in & outrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  27. 27. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Function  works on proteins  helps complete the proteins after ribosome builds them  makes membranes  Structure  rough ER  ribosomes attached  works on proteins  smooth ER  makes membranesRegents Biology
  28. 28. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell ribosomesmitochondria builds proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2cell membranecell boundary ERcontrols movement works on proteins of materials in & out makes membranesrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  29. 29. Golgi Apparatus  Function  finishes, sorts, labels & ships proteins  like UPS headquarters  shipping & receiving department  ships proteins in vesicles vesicles  “UPS trucks” carrying proteins  Structure  membrane sacsRegents Biology transport vesicles
  30. 30. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cell ribosomesmitochondria builds proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2 Golgi apparatuscell membrane finishes, packagescell boundary ER & ships proteinscontrols movement helps finish proteins of materials in & out makes membranesrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  31. 31. nucleus endoplasmic reticulum protein DNA on its way! TO: RNA vesicle TO: TO: vesicle ribosomes TO: protein finished protein Golgi apparatus Making ProteinsRegents Biology
  32. 32. nucleolus make ribosomes endoplasmic reticulumnucleus processes proteinscontrol cell makes membranesprotects DNA ribosomescytoplasm make proteinsjelly-like material around organelles central vacuoleGolgi apparatus storage: food,finish & ship water or waste proteinsmitochondria cell wallmake ATP in support cellular respirationcell membrane chloroplastcell boundary make ATP & sugars incontrols movement photosynthesis of materials in & out lysosomerecognizes signalsRegents Biology digestion & clean up
  33. 33. 3. Cells need to make more cells!  Making more cells  to replace, repair & grow, the cell must…  copy their DNA  make extra organelles  divide the new DNA & new organelles between 2 new “daughter” cells  organelles that do this work…  nucleus  centriolesRegents Biology
  34. 34. Centrioles  Function  help coordinate cell division  only in animal cells  Structure  one pair in each cellRegents Biology
  35. 35. cytoplasmjelly-like material holding lysosome organelles in place food digestion garbage disposal &vacuole & vesicles recycling nucleustransport inside cells protects DNAstorage controls cellcentriolescell division ribosomesmitochondria builds proteinsmake ATP energy from sugar + O2 Golgi apparatuscell membrane finishes, packagescell boundary ER & ships proteinscontrols movement helps finish proteins of materials in & out makes membranesrecognizes signals Regents Biology
  36. 36. Cell Summary  Cells have 3 main jobs  make energy  need food + O2  cellular respiration & photosynthesis  need to remove wastes Our organelles do all those  make proteins jobs!  need instructions from DNA  need to chain together amino acids & “finish” & “ship” the protein  make more cells  need to copy DNA & divide it up to daughter cellsRegents Biology
  37. 37. That’s my cellular story… Any Questions?AP Biology 2009-2010

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