Popular religious center of Hindu , Buddhist ,Jain , Sikh , Muslim & Christians & WorldHeritage sites in India.Course DetailsCourse :Hospitality & Tourism ManagementSemester : 8thCourse Code : HTM/SM/41****1SUBMITTE TO -SUBMITTE BY-C. Nagapavan Jay SumanFaculty of IMBA CUJ/1/2009/IMBA/8CUJ8thSEM IMBA2013
Page | 1Popular religious centre of all religion in IndiaReligion and religious beliefs have a large impact on the personal lives of most Indians andinfluence public life on a daily basis. Indian religions have deep historical roots that arerecollected by contemporary Indians. The ancient culture of South Asia, going back at least4,500 years, has come down to India primarily in the form of religious texts. The artisticheritage, as well as intellectual and philosophical contributions, has always owed much toreligious thought and symbolism. Religion, then, is one of the most important aspects ofIndian history and contemporary life.Most of the world religions originated in India, and others that started elsewhere found fertileground for growth here. Devotees of Hinduism, a varied group with philosophical anddevotional traditions, are officially numbered 687.6 million people or 82 per cent of thepopulation in the 1991 census. The ancient monastic traditions, Buddhism and Jainism, havehad a major influence on Indian art, philosophy, and society and remain important minorityreligions of the twenty first century. Buddhists represented 0.8 per cent of the total populationwhile Jains represented 0.4 per cent in a recent survey.Islam spread from the West throughout South Asia, from the early eighth century, to becomethe largest minority religion in India. With 101.5 million Muslims (12.1 per cent of thepopulation), India has the second largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia.Sikhism, which started in Punjab in the sixteenth century, has spread throughout India and theworld since the mid-nineteenth century. With nearly 16.3 million adherents, Sikhs represent1.9 per cent of Indias population.Christianity, represented by Catholics and Protestants, traces its history in India back to thetime of the apostles and counted more than 20 million members in India. Minorities, mostlyconcentrated on India’s west coast, represent Judaism and Zoroastrianism, arriving originallywith traders and exiles from the West.Major Hindu religious centre in IndiaFollowing is an overview of major Hindu centreand pilgrimages in India.
Page | 2AllahabadA holy city and pilgrimage site at the confluence of three sacred rivers. One of the four sitesof the Kumbh Mela.BadrinathThe most important of the four Char Dham pilgrimage destinations, featuring a brightlypainted temple.Char Dham PilgrimageA pilgrimage circuit in the Indian Himalayas that encompasses Yamunotri, Gangotri,Kedarnath and Badrinath.Elephanta CavesSeventh-century cave temples dedicated to the Hindu god Shiva, just a short ferry ride fromMumbai. Includes a famous sculpture of a three-headed Shiva.Ellora CavesTenth-century cave temples near Aurangabad; some Hindu, some Jain, some Buddhist. AUNESCO World Heritage site.GangotriThe source of the sacred Ganges River and the seat of the goddess Ganga. One of the fourstops on the Char Dham pilgrimage in the Indian Himalayas.KedarnathHoly city where a form of the god Shiva is venerated as one of the 12 jyotirling (linga oflight). One of the four sites of the Char Dham pilgrimage.Varanasi (Benares)Holy city sacred to Shiva, but also the most sacred place in Hinduism regardless ofdenomination. It is believed that bathing in the Ganges or dying in the holy city of Varanasiwill end the cycle of rebirth.VrindavanTemples and religious institutions based on the connections with Krishnas childhood. Themost important Vaishnava place of pilgrimage.Walkeshwar Temple and Banganga Tank, MumbaiA Shiva temple built next to a sacred freshwater spring created by Ramas arrow. The tankswaters are believed to have healing powers.
Page | 3YamunotriThe source of the Yamuna River and the seat of the goddess Yamuna. One of the four sites inthe Char Dham pilgrimage.Major Buddhist religious center in IndiaLumbiniLumbini is the birthplace of Buddha and is 306 km from Kathmandu in Nepal. Buddha wasborn in 623 BC in Lumbini. It is assumed that Buddha himself have known four places offuture pilgrimage in the Parinibbana Sutta, namely, the sites of his birth, enlightenment, firstdiscourse and death. All of these events occurred in open under the trees. Lumbini is listed inthe World Heritage Site. Famous places of Lumbini are Sacred Garden, Maya Devi Temple,Puskani Pond, Ashokan Pillar, Nepal Buddha Temple.Access: Lumbini can be reached via Bhairahawa, which is well connected with Kathmanduand Pokhara by air and road. Bhairahawa and Lumbini are well linked with an all weatherroad and frequent bus service is easily available.SarnathSarnath, 10 km from the holy city of Varanasi, is a significant site of the Buddhist Circuit.Buddha reached to Sarnath shortly after he attained enlightenment in Bodhgaya. He deliveredhis first sermon or Maha Dharma Chakra Pravartan at the Deer Park in Sarnath. EmperorAshoka visited Sarnath 234 BC and erected a stupa here. Several Buddhist structures wereraised at Sarnath between the 3rd century BC and the 11th century AD. Some famous placesof Sarnath are Chaukhandi Stupa, Dhamek Stupa, Mulgandha Kuti Vihar, Sarnath Museum.Access:Sarnath can be accessed via Varanasi, which is well connected with all the importantcities of India by air, train or bus. Varanasi is at a distance of 10 km from Sarnath and is alarge city.
Page | 4SankasyaSankasya is 47 km from Farrukhabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh. It is more also known asSankisa. As per to Buddhist mythology, it is believed that Buddha descended at this veryplace along with Brahma and Devraj Indra after giving discourses to his mother in heaven.The Buddhist traditions also say that all Buddhas descend to earth at this place.Access:The nearest airport to Sankasya is at Agra and the railway station is at Pakhna, whichis 12 km away. There are regular bus and taxi services are available from Farrukhabad toSankasya.RajgirRajgir is to found at a distance of 15 km from Nalanda in Bihar. It was the capital of theMagadh Mahajanpada when Patliputra was not established. In the ancient times, Rajgir wascalled Rajgriha, which means the Home of Royalty. This place is important because Buddhaspent many years in Rajgir and also delivered some significant discourses here. Buddhaconverted Emperor Bimbisar to Buddhism at the Griddhakoota Hill in Rajgir. The teachingsof Buddha were written down at Rajgir and it was also the venue for the First BuddhistCouncil. Other famous places of Rajgir are Vishwa Shanti Stupa, Venu Vana Monastery,Griddhakoota Hill.Access: The nearest airport to Rajgir is at Patna, which is 101 km away. Rajgir is well linkedby rail and road network with all the important cities of Bihar.BodhgayaBodhgaya is 13 km from Gaya in Bihar. It is the place where Prince Siddhartha attainedenlightenment under a pipal tree after years of search for the truth and knowledge. Heattained the supreme enlightenment and became The Buddha or the Enlightened One.Bodhgaya is the most the holiest pilgrimage centre for Buddhists from all over the world. TheMahabodhi Temple at Bodhgaya is listed in the World Heritage Site. Bodhgaya is famous forMahabodi Temple.Access: Bodhgaya can be reached via Gaya, which is connected with the major Indian as wellas foreign cities by air and rail. Gaya is 13 km from Bodhgaya and is well connected byfrequent bus and taxi services.Kushinagar
Page | 5Kushinagar is 51 km from Gorakhpur in Uttar Pradesh. Kushinagar is important because it isthe place where Buddha attained the state of Mahaparinirvana or Permanent Bliss at the ageof 80. The pilgrims as well as the tourists from all over the world visit Kushinagar for itshistorical importance. Three great Chinese scholars Fa-Hien, Hiuen Tsang and I-Tsing, whotraveled to India, also visited Kushinagar. Main attractive place of Kushinagar areMahaparinirvana Temple, Nirvana Chaitya, Ramabhar Stupa, Matha Kuar Shrine.Access:Kushinagar can be accessed via Gorakhpur, which is well connected by rail and roadnetwork with important cities of India. There are regular bus and taxi services for Kushinagarfrom Gorakhpur, Lumbini, Kapilavastu, Sravasti and Sarnath.VaishaliVaishali is 36 km from Muzzafarpur in the state of Bihar. Lord Buddha regularly visited thisplace and preached his last sermon at Kolhua, a nearby place. Emperor Ashoka erected one ofhis well-known lion pillars here in the 3rd century BC commemorate the event. Famous placeof Vaishali are Kolhua, Vaishali Museum, Raja Vishal Ka Garh, Bawan Pokhar Temple.Access: The nearest airport to Vaishali is at Patna, which is around 70 km and the nearestrailway station is at Hajipur 35 km away. Vaishali is well connected by regular bus and taxiservices from Patna, Muzaffarpur and Hajipur.SravastiSravasti is situated 34 km from Balrampur and 134 km from Lucknow in Uttar Pradesh. Thecity assumed to be founded by the mythological king Sravast. Lord Buddha preached hereafter he got his enlightenment. Buddha has 24 rainy seasons in the Jetvana Gardens atSravasti and has performed some miracles here. After the death of Buddha, this monasterygot royal patronage. Famous place of Sravasti are Gandha-Kuti, Kosambi-Kuti, AnandaBodhi Tree.Access: Lucknow is the nearest airport to Sravasti which is 134 km away. The nearestrailway station is at Balrampur, which is 34 km away. Sravast is well connected by roadnetwork with many cities of Uttar Pradesh.
Page | 6Major Jain religious center in IndiaThe Jain Temples and innumerable Jain shrines dotting the Indian landscape, area testamentto the Jain Tirthankars (enlightened ones), who spread their message of peace, non violence,love and enlightenment as a way of salvation, freeing themselves from the continual cycle ofbirth and rebirth and, in the process managed to build some of the most stunning architecturallandmarks in the country. Dedicated to Lord Mahavira-the founder of Jainism, these templesalso have idols of Hindu deities in them. The essence of this great religion and its preachingcan be seen in the cave temples, in the elaborately decorated carved stones and in thenumerous illustrated manuscripts scattered across India.The most popular Jain centre in India are :-Dilwara TemplesThe five legendary Dilwara temples in Rajasthan, 2.5 km from Mount Abu are an example ofextraordinary architecture of the Jain Temples. These temples can be dated back to the 11thand 13th centuries and are made of Marble, shaded by groves of simple beauty and exquisiteelegance. They are a reminder of honesty and frugality encouraged in the Jain religion.Although the Jains built some beautiful temples at other places in Rajasthan but none comeclose to these in terms of architectural perfection. These are the most popular Jain Templesall over India. The inside of these temples have beautiful carvings, depicting the various godsand goddesses.Palitana TemplesThese temples are located on the shetrunjaya hills and are considered to be the most sacred ofall Jain Temples. Theres a huge complex consisting of nearly 863 temples, exquisitely carvedin marble. The construction of these temples took more than 900 years . These stunningtemples are a must see in your visit to northern part on India
Page | 7RanakpurRanakpur in Rajasthan is one of the five most important pilgrimage sites for Jainism. Situatedin the Aravali hills, it is home to extraordinarily gorgeous temples, the first to have been builtby the Jain community. It is said that the town of Falna donated more than 90 kg of gold forthe inner decoration of this temple. With its beautiful marble carvings and 1500 pillars, eachdifferent from the other, this is an extraordinary temple. Watching the sun shift through thesepillars as they change colors from gold to pale blue will be a remarkable experience.Gomatheshwara temple(shravanabelagola)Gomateshwara is a monolithic statue standing at 60 feet (18 m) above a hill in a place calledShravanabelagola in the Hassan district of Karnataka state, India. The statue was built by theGanga minister and commander Chamundaraya in honour of Lord Bahubali. It was built inthe 10th century AD and is the size Jains believe humans used to be. Hundreds of thousandsof pilgrims, devotees and tourists from all over the world flock to the statue once in 12 yearsfor an event known as Mahamastakabhisheka. The colossal monolithic statue ofGomateshwara or Bahubali is situated at Shravanabelagola, 158 km away from Bangalore.This gigantic statue of lord Bahubali, the Jain saint, is carved out of a single block of graniteand stands majestically on top of a hill. For centuries, Shravanabelagola has remained a greatJain center and thousands of pilgrims flock to see the magnificent, gigantic statue. The saintis shown completely nude, in the Jain custom. It is 17 m. (55 ft) high and is visible from adistance of 30 km. This statue is regarded as one of the largest monolithic statues in theworld.Jain temple(Mudabidri)Moodbidri, is a small town located at a distance of 35 km north-east of Mangalore inDakshina Kannada district. Moodbidri is known as the Jain Kashi of South India and it is anancient center of Jain learning. Moodbidri houses 18 Jain temples (basadis). The oldest ofthem is the 15th century Chandranatha Basadi, which is also known as the 1000 (Thousand)Pillars temple or Savira Kambada basadi.Thousand pillars temple: This is a large granite temple built in 1430 A.D. The main entranceof the thousand pillar temple, which faces the east, opens onto a wonderful 15 meter tallmonolithic pillar called Mahastamba in front of the doorway. The 2.5 meter tall bronze idolof Lord Chandranatha Swami in the sanctum hall is considered to be very sacred. The pillarsof this basadi are decorated with carvings typical of Vijayanagara style. The temple boasts ofa valuable collection of jewel-encrusted metallic images of Jain tirthankaras, and superbmonolithic columns in the Jain tradition, each with a different carving. The Jain Mutt near themain temple entrance has a library protecting some beautiful 12th and 13th century palm leafmanuscripts.
Page | 8Taranga (Jain Temple)Taranga (Taranga Tirtha) is a Shvetambar Jain temple and pilgrimage center, in Mehsanadistrict, Gujarat, India. It was constructed in 1121 by the Solanki dynasty king Kumarpal,advised by his teacher Acharya Hemachandra. A 2.75 m marble statue of Adinatha is thecentral idol. The compound consists of 14 temples in all and some five others from theDigambar sect near shwetambar temples.Mulnayak: Nearly 2.75 m high, white colored idolof Bhagawan Ajitnath.Other Jain Temples in India areJain Golden Temple in Falna, Sravanabelagola, Khandagiri Caves, Udaigiri, Kalugumalai inTamil Nadu, Sri Digambar Jain Lal Mandir (Delhi), sittannavasal in Tamil Nadu, Chitral inTamil Nadu, Hati-gumph in Orissa, Tirupparut-Tikunram in Tamil Nadu, Girnar, Vallimalai,Ajitnath Temple in Gujrat.Major Sikh religious CentresSikhism was founded in the Punjab by Guru Nanak and is a monotheistic religion. Sikhismwas founded in the 16th century in the Punjab district of what is now India and Pakistan. Itwas founded by Guru Nanak and is based on his teachings, and those of the 9 Sikh Guruswho followed him.The Gurus who followed Nanak contributed to the consolidation andspread of Sikhism.
Page | 9Ten Sikh GurusThe first Guru (Master) - Guru Nanak Dev (1469 to 1539), the second guru - Guru AngadDev (1504 To 1552), the Third Guru- Guru Amar Das (1479 To 1574), the Fourth Guru-Guru Ram Das (1534 To 1581), the Fifth Guru- Guru Arjan Dev (1563 To 1606), the SixthGuru- Guru Hargobind (1595 To 1644) ,the Seventh Guru- Guru Har Rai (1630 To 1661), theEighth Guru- Guru Harkrishan (1656 To 1664), the Ninth Guru- Guru Tegh Bahadur (1621To 1675), the Tenth Guru- Guru Gobind Singh (1666 To 1708Gurdwara - Sikh Religious Place (Sikh Temple)A Gurdwara, meaning "the doorway to the Guru", is the Sikh place of worship and may bereferred to as a Sikh temple. The most famous gurdwara is the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar.Any place where the Guru Granth Sahib is installed and treated with due respect can bereferred to as a GurdwaraThe Golden Temple is a living symbol of the spiritual and historical traditions of the Sikhs. Itis a source of inspiration for all Sikhs and their chief place of pilgrimage. Also known asHarimandir Sahib, it has entrances and doors on all four sides.Guru Granth SahibThe Guru Granth Sahib (also known as the Adi Granth) is considered the Supreme SpiritualAuthority and Head of the Sikh religion, rather than any living person. The living Guru of theSikhs, the book is held in great reverence by Sikhs and treated with the utmost respect. Itspans 1430 pages and contains the actual words spoken by the Sikh Gurus and various otherSaints. The tenth Sikh Guru decreed that after his death the spiritual guide of the Sikhs wouldbe the teachings contained in Guru Granth Sahib.The Making of the KhalsaGuru Gobind Singh was the last Guru of the Sikhs in human form. He created the Khalsa, aspiritual brotherhood and sisterhood devoted to purity of thought and action. He gave theKhalsa a distinctive external form to remind them of their commitment, and to help themmaintain an elevated state of consciousness. Fore more information on Baisakhi click here.Every Sikh baptized as Khalsa vows to wear the Five "Ks":
Page | 10The community of men and women who have been initiated into the Sikh faith is the Khalsa.The Khalsa celebrated its 300th anniversary in 1999.Important Sikh religious Places in IndiaAnandpur Sahib: Located some 75 km away from Chandigarh up the highway towardsDharamsala and Manali, the impressive gurudwara that is one of the holiest Sikh Takht SriKeshgarh Sahib (the birth place of the Khalsa) is located in Anandpur ....Read More aboutAnandpur Sahib.Gurudwara Bangla Sahib: Bangla Sahib Gurdwara is situated just a furlong away from themain Connaught Place and has become a centre of pilgrimage for lakhs of people .Golden Temple: The Golden Temple is located in the holy city of the Sikhs, Amritsar, oncethe dense forest home of Guru Nanak. Famous for its full golden dome.Hemkund Sahib: Hemkund ( Lake of gold), is situated nearly 29 kms from Joshimath viaGovindghat, is set in one of the famous beauty spots of the central Himalays.Paonta Sahib: Paonta Sahib is situated on the bank of the river Yamuna.This place holdssignificance as it has been the holy Guru Gobind Singhs abode for over 4 years.Takht Sri Patna Sahib: One of the Five Takhts or Seat of Authority of the Sikhs. TheGurdwara at Patna Sahib is in remberance of the birth place of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenthGuru of the Sikhs.Takht Sri Hazur Sahib: Guru Gobind Singh Ji left this world. It is one of the five takhts(Seats of Temporal authority) in Sikhism.Manikaran : Scared site of Sikh where Guru Govind Singh came along with his Five Piaras...read more about Manikaran
Page | 11Muslim religious center in indiaIslam in IndiaIslam is a monotheistic religion based on the revelations received the Prophet Muhammad inthe 7th century, which were later recorded in the Quran. Today, Islam is the second largestreligion in the world. The word "Islam" means "submission," reflecting the religions centraltenet of submitting to the will of God. Islamic practices are defined by the Five Pillars ofIslam: faith, prayer, fasting, pilgrimage and alms.The emergence of Islam in Indian sub-continent is concurrent with the Turko-Musliminvasion of medevial India (which includes large parts of present day Pakistan and theRepublic of India) , where these rulers took over the administration of large parts of India.Since its introduction into India, Islam has made religious, artistic, philosophical, cultural,social and political contributions to Indian history, heritage and life.Islam spread from theWest throughout South Asia, from the early eighth century, to become the largest minorityreligion in India.Muslim Beliefs & PracticesThe religious rituals of Islam are relatively few in number, but great in importance. The FivePillars of Islam are five practices regarded by all sects as essential to the Muslim faith andthese are:Shahadah: sincerely reciting the Muslim profession of faith, Salat: performing ritual prayersin the proper way five times each day, Zakat: paying an alms (or charity) tax to benefit thepoor and the needy, Sawm: fasting during the month of Ramadan and Hajj: pilgrimage toMeccaMosques:Mosques are Muslim places of worship and prayer. The word "mosque" comesfrom the Arabic masjid, which is related to the word for "prostration." Muslims are required
Page | 12to pray five times a day, preferrably in a mosque: morning, midday, afternoon, sunset, andevening. Some of the notable Mosques are Jama Masjid Delhi, Begumpuri Masjid Delhi, TajMahal Ujjain Jama Masjid , Jama Masjid Bhopal, Moti Masjid Bhopal...Quran :Quran is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Quran to be thebook of divine guidance and direction for mankind, the text in its original Arabic, to be theliteral word of God revealed to Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years and view theQuran as Gods final revelation to humanity. In Arabic, the word quran means "reading" or"recitation".Holy Cities of IslamMecca, Medina, Jerusalem, Karbala, Najaf are considered to be the most sacred places ofIslam located in south-east Asia. The Shiite Muslims undertake a pilgrimage to the holy cityof Mashhad in northeastern part of Iran.The most revered center by Muslims in India are:Ajmer Sharif (Rajasthan):The propounder of the Chishti Sufi order one of the most vitalsystems in India and Pakistan, lived, preached the tenets of peace and died here in Ajmer.The Dargah, considered a center of wish fulfillment, has shrines built by various MughalEmperors. Shah Jehan’s daughter, built a prayer room and the tomb of Bhishti, tomb ofSaints daughter-Bibi Hafiz Jama, tomb of Shah Jahans daughter Chimni Begum, make theDargah an all-are-welcome spiritual abode. One of the most revered sites in the Islamicworld, some 5000 devotees both Muslim and non-Muslim with hearts full of hope andprayers, visit Dargah Sharif everyday. The annual Urs festival held every June attracts about15 lakh pilgrims from round the world.Jama Masjid (Delhi):A mastermind of the greatest sculptor of those times, Ostad Khalil andMughal Emperor Shah Jehan, the red-sandstone Jama Masjid is the largest mosque in Indiabuilt between 1644 AD and 1658 AD by five thousand artisans. Standing mammoth in themidst of Delhi’s bustling ChandniChowk, the mosque was born “Masjid-i-Jahanuma” or the“Mosque that commands the view of the world” and true to its name, the structure is aninfallible insignia of the Islamic influence in India. A replica of the Moti Masjid of Agra, thearchitectural grandeur apart, its vast courtyard can accommodate upto 25,000 devotees and ithosts a hair of the beard of Hazrat Muhammad, his used chappal (slippers), a chapter ofKoran taken from its original holy book, the canopy of his tombstone and the foot print ofMuhammad on the stone. Another aspect of interest for pilgrims is that the chief priest(Imam) of Jama Masjid is the direct descendent of the original and first Imam appointed byShahjahan and till now there is no break in its lineage.
Page | 13HazratNizamuddinAuliyaDargah (Delhi): South Delhi’s Dargah ofHazratNizamuddinAuliya, built by Muhammad Tughlaq is considered one of the most sacredin the Islamic world. Amir Khusrau, the famous poet and the beloved disciple ofNizamuddin; JahanAra Begum, daughter of Shah Jahan and renowned poet MirzaGhalib arealso lie buried here. Urs is also celebrated here, but twice a year, to commemorate the deathAnniversary of NizamuddinAuliya and Amir Khusrau.Dargah-Qutb-Sahib (Delhi): In Delhi’s Mehrauli village, near GandakkiBaoli, there is aDargah, crowded throughout the year with hopeful devotees (both Islam and non-Islam) whotie a thread near the grave and untie it once their wish is fulfilled. This is the Dargah of QutbSahib, the spiritual successor of KhwajaMuinud Din Chishti of Ajmer. There are otherimportant graves near the Dargah, of believers who wanted to be buried near the Saint, likethat of the Mughal emperors Bahadur Shah I (1707-12), Shah Alam II (1759-1806), Akbar II(1806-37) and many persons of royal blood.Haji Ali (Mumbai):Haji Ali Dargah, is the 800 year old tomb of the once wealthy Muslimmerchant, who renounced all his earthly property before setting off for a spiritual quest toMecca. Built 500 yards off the shore, right in the middle of the sea, opposite theMahalakshmi race-course, the narrow path linking the tomb to the mainland gets submergedduring Monsoons. Separate praying rooms for men and women exist. It can only be visitedoff-monsoons, but if you have landed in Mumbai, in the wrong time, it is still a serene sightto behold the mosque appears floating on the turquoise waters.Fatehpur Sikri (Uttar Pradesh):Drive 37 km West of Agra, and when you begin to seestructures in Red Stone till the vision can reach, you know you have reached Fatehpur Sikri.A Mughal Emperor Akbar township, still populated by some 30,000 citizens, the pilgrimscome here to witness the classic unison of Hindu and Islamic architecture and pay theirobeisance at the Fatehpur Sikri Mosque (a true replica of the mosque in Mecca), the grandJami Masjid (has the famed BulandDarwaza) and Dargah Of Sheikh SalimChisti - where,childless women come for blessings of the saint, a trend heralded by Akbar, who was blessedwith three sons, after he came here.Mecca Masjid (Andhra Pradesh): Flanking the Charminar in the Andhra Capital,Hyderabad is the Mecca Masjid, so named because the bricks were brought from Mecca tobuild the central arch. They say, “Mecca Masjid is poetry in stone”. Towards the southernend of the mosque lie the marble graves of Nizam Ali Khan and the families of AsafJahidynasty.
Page | 14Hazratbal Mosque (Kashmir):Hazratbal Mosque is situated on the western bank of the DalLake opposite NishatBagh in Srinagar. It is the most venerated Muslim shrine in Kashmir, asit houses the Moi-e-Muqaddas or the Sacred Hair of the Prophet Mohammed displayed to thepublic on religious ceremonies usually accompanied by fairs. The shrine is known by severalnames including Hazratbal, Assar-e-Sharif, Madinat-Us-Sani and Dargah Sharif. Hazratbal isnoteworthy also for being the only domed mosque in Srinagar.Major Christian centres in IndiaChristianity, represented by Catholics and Protestants, traces its history in India back to thetime of the apostles and counted more than 20 million members in India. Minorities, mostlyconcentrated on India’s west coast, represent Judaism and Zoroastrianism, arriving originallywith traders and exiles from the West.Basilica of Bom Jesus, Panaji, GoaOne of the most visited churches in India; the Basilica of Bom Jesus is located in Panaji, Goa.It is famous for the mortal remains of St. Francis Xavier, kept in a silver casket. It is the mostpopular and famous of all churches in Goa. It was constructed in the year 1605 and isconsidered as a world heritage site.Church of Sacred Heart, New DelhiThe Church of Sacred Heart is located in the south end of BhaiVir Singh Margh in the city ofNew Delhi. The English man Henry Medd constructed it in the year 1927.Cathedral Church of Redemption, New DelhiThe Cathedral Church of Redemption is located east of Indian Parliament House in NewDelhi. The famous architect Henry Medd constructed the church in between 1927 and 1935.St. Joseph’s Cathedral, Hyderabad, Andhra PradeshThe St. Joseph’s Cathedral is one of the oldest churches in South India. It is located in theGunfoundry Area in Hyderabad. Built in 1860 AD, the church retains its glory till now.
Page | 15Church of Our Lady of The Rosary, Panaji, GoaBuilt in between 1544-1549 AD, the Church of Our Lady of The Rosary is located at HolyHill, Old Goa. The type of construction is medieval and is well placed in the map of worldheritage sites.Christ Church and St Michaels Cathedral, Shimla, Himachal PradeshThe Christ Church and St Michael’s Cathedral is located at Shimla city, the capital ofHimachal Pradesh. Constructed in the 19th century by Colonel Dumbelton, the church retainsits medieval style architecture and is considered as one of the must visit monuments ofChristianity.Malayatoor Church, KeralaThe Malayatoor Church, located 52 kilometers from Cochin at Kurisumudi, is one of themost visited pilgrimage sites of Christianity in Kerala. The church is placed 609 meters abovesea level and is famous for a life-size statue of St. Thomas and the imprint of the feet of theApostle on a rock. The first Sunday after Easter is considered as the festival day of thechurch.Velankanni Church, Tamil NaduLocated 12-km south of Nagapattinam in Tamil Nadu, the Velankanni Church is dedicated toSt. Mary. It is believed that St. Mary dispensed her miracles to mankind from here. TheVelankanni is a famous pilgrimage center in India irrespective of religion, caste, and creed.Santhome Cathedral Basilica, ChennaiThe Santhome Cathedral Basilica is located at 24 Santhome High Road-Mylapore, Chennai.It was here that St. Thomas one of the Apostles of Jesus Christ was killed and buried.
Page | 16Treasure of World Heritage Sites in IndiaThe World Heritage Sites in India are recognized by the United Nations Educational,Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as on 29, as of 2012. These are places ofimportance of cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World HeritageConvention, established in 1972. The Convention concerning the protection of the WorldCultural and Natural Heritage was adopted on 17 November 1997 following the GeneralConference of the UNESCO held from 17 October 1972 to 21 November 1972. TheConvention is defined under 28 Articles. Broadly, the Cultural Heritage Sites are defined inArticle 1 as monuments, groups of buildings and sites, while the natural sites defined underArticle 2 refer to natural features, geological and physiographical formations and naturalsites. As of date, there are 911 properties under the World Heritage List, which cover 711cultural sites, 180 natural sites and 27 mixed properties encompassing 152 countries,including India. Countries who have signed the Convention are 187 States, including India,which signed the Convention on November 14, 1977.1. Agra Fort (1983)2. Ajanta Caves (1983)3. Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989)4. Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park (2004)5. Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus (formerly Victoria Terminus) (2004)6. Churches and Convents of Goa (1986)
Page | 177. Elephanta Caves (1987)8. Ellora Caves (1983)9. Fatehpur Sikri (1986)10. Great Living Chola Temples (1987)11. Group of Monuments at Hampi (1986)12. Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram (1984)13. Group of Monuments at Pattadakal (1987)14. Humayuns Tomb, Delhi (1993)15. Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986)16. Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (2002)17. Mountain Railways of India (1999)18. Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi (1993)19. Red Fort Complex (2007)20. Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003)21. Sun Temple, Konârak (1984)22. Taj Mahal (1983)23. The Jantar Mantar, Jaipur (2010)Natural1. Kaziranga National Park (1985)2. Keoladeo National Park (1985)
Page | 183. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)4. Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988)5. Sundarbans National Park (1987)6. Western Ghats (2012)Properties submitted on the Tentative List (34)1. Temples at Bishnupur, West Bengal (1998)2. Buddhist Monastery Complex, Alchi, Leh, known as AlchiChos-kor (1998)3. Golconda Fort, Hyderbad, Andhra Pradesh (1998)4. Dholavira: a Harappan City, Gujarat, Disstt, Kachchh (1998)5. Rani-ki-Vav (The Queens Stepwell) at Patan, Gujarat (1998)6. Mattanchery Palace, Ernakulam, Kerala (1998)7. Tomb of Sher Shah Suri, Sasaram, Bihar (1998)8. Group of Monuments at Mandu, Madhya Pradesh (1998)9. Ancient Buddhist Site, Sarnath, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh (1998)10. HemisGompa (1998)11. Sri Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar, Punjab (2004)12. River Island of Majuli in midstream of Brahmaputra River in Assam (2004)13. The Matheran Light Railway (extension to the Mountain Railways of India)(2005)14. Namdapha National Park (2006)15. Wild Ass Sanctuary, Little Rann of Kutch (2006)16. Kangchendzonga National Park (2006)17. Urban and Architectural Work of Le Corbusier in Chandigarh (2006)18. The Kangra Valley Railway - Extension to the Mountain Railways of India (2009)
Page | 1919. Churchgate - Extension to Mumbai CST (2009)20. The Maharaja Railways of India (2009)21. Oak Grove School (2009)22. Excavated Remains at Nalanda (2009)23. Great Himalayan National Park (2009)24. Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (2009)25. Neora Valley National Park (2009)26. Desert National Park (2009)27. Silk Road Sites in India (2010)28. Santiniketan (2010)29. The QutbShahi Monuments of Hyderabad Golconda Fort, QutbShahi Tombs,Charminar (2010)30. Mughal Gardens in Kashmir (2010)31. Hill Forts of Rajasthan (2010)32. Historic city of Ahmadabad (2011)33. The Victorian & Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai (2012)34. Delhi - A Heritage City (2012)Agra Fort - The History of India is one such thing of which we can boast of withgreat pride in front of our generations to come.Ajanta Caves - Cut into a horseshoe -shaped hillside , silent but for birdsong and therippling Waghora River below, Ajanta is a hidden sanctuary.
Page | 20Buddhist Monastery at Sanchi - Nagging wife, traffic jam, scorching heat , irritatedboss and meagre income the list of problems in the life of a common man is limitless.Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park - The Champaner- PavagadhArchaeological Park is a UNESCO World Heritage Site which lies at about 47kilometres north-east of Vadodara in Gujarat.ChattrapatiShivaji Terminus - The Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus was earlier knownby its very British nomenclature as Victoria Terminus or VT. It is one of the majorlinks of the on the Mumbai suburban railway network.Churches and Convents Of Goa - Goa is not only about the stunning beaches,swaying palms, scenic coves, golden sand and mesmerising turquoise waters. A tourto Goa is also about its architectural marvels which are fully displayed in its churchesand convents.Darjeeling Himalayan Railway - Hill Cart Road, emanates a reluctant chuggingsound every morning, and when you wait to find out ,you will discover somethingemerging out of the dense white mist looking something like - out of a little boysChristmas stocking - well, you guessed it right- its the Toy Train.Elephanta Caves - The historic Elephanta Caves is located at Elephanta Islands inMumbai. The Elephanta Caves is the pride owner of some of the finest rock - cutsculptures in India. Elephanta is strewn with spiritual remnants.Ellora Caves - Ellora is an ancient village that is located at about 30 km from the cityof Aurangabad in the state of Maharastra. Ellora is famous in all over the world fir itsspectacular monumental caves.Fatehpur Sikri - The majestic city of Fatehpur Sikri was built in 1571 by Mughalemperor Akbar in the honour of SalimChisti, a resident saint of Sikri. It is located atabout 26 miles west of Agra.
Page | 21Great Living Chola Temples - The Great Living Chola Temples were built duringthe reign of the Chola dynasty in the south of India. The major temples are theBrihadiswara Temple at Thanjavur, the temple of Gangaikondacholisvaram and theAiravatesvara Temple at Darasuram.Group Of Monuments at Hampi - Hampi, a village in northern Karnataka is situatedon the southern bank of the river Tungabhadra river. Once it was the seat of themighty Vijainagaraempire.Group Of Monuments at Mahabalipuram - Mahabalipuram is also known asMamallapuram after Mamalla who was responsible for creating the earliest monumentin the city, under the reign of the Pallava King, narshimhaVarman I.Group Of Monuments at Pattadakal - Pattadakal is located in the Bijapur district ofKarnataka. It was the second capital and coronation town of the early Chalukyas. Thecomplex of Patadakal owns 10 temples which dates from 7th to 9th century AD.Humayuns Tomb - We know that Mughals loved gardens and the their culture washeavily dictated by the Persian mores. All these features are well visible inHumayuns tomb.Kaziranga National Park - Situated on the banks of the Brahmaputra river in Assam,Kaziranga is one of the famous wildlife parks in the world. It is a stronghold of someof the most magnificent creatures.Keoladeo National Park - A bird does not sing because it has an answer. It singsbecause it has a song...if you are not willing to trust me on that, then you are mostwelcome to Keoladeo Ghana National Park.Khajuraho Temples - Steeped in history, blessed by nature and sanctified by faith -the temples of Khajuraho are Indias unique gift to the world.
Page | 22Konark Sun Temple - If you plan to visit a temple during your trip to Orissa, thennothing else than the Konark Sun Temple would give you the religious and spiritualsatisfaction.Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya - If by leaving a small pleasure onesees a great pleasure, let a wise man leave the small pleasure, and look to thegreat.....sounds out of the world, right? Well! not really because our past is the witnessof great men who have been true followers of this teaching of Buddha and many aretrying hard to be one.Manas Wildlife Sanctuary - This park was designated as the World Heritage Site inDecember 1985. It is a home to a great variety of wildlife.Nanda Devi National Park - This park is located near the Nanda Devi , the secondhighest mountain peak of India and is famous for its unique high altitude flora andfauna.Qutub Minar and Associated Monuments - Qutub Minar and AssociatedMonuments, located in Delhi, showcase an excellent example of early Islamicarchitecture.Rock Shelters Of Bhimbetka - This was added to the World UNESCOS WorldHeritage List in 2003. The rock shelters and caves have a several interestingpaintings, which date back to the Mesolithic period.Sunderbans National Park - A home to the Royal Bengal Tiger, SunderbansNational Park is a part of the worlds largest delta formed by the Ganga andBrahmaputra.Taj Mahal - The de facto tourist emblem of India, Taj Mahal is the witness of greatlove between Shah Jehan and his wife Mumtaz. This poignant Mughal mausoleumhas failed all those who have tried to sum up its beauty.
Page | 23Red For- The 17th century Mughal architectural wonder -Red Fort was bestowed thestatus of the World Heritage Site bu UNESCO on Thursday.