CASE STUDY: TOOL FOREFFECTIVE COUNSELINGPresented by:JAYSON S. HERNANDEZGuidance Counselor ISan Miguel National High School
DEFINITION OF CASE STUDY An analysis and write up of the data collected in acase history. Is a report on an interview investigation of manyimportant aspects of some unit - a person, a group,a community, an institution or the like. (All availabledata about an individual are surveyed and the significantitems are assembled, organized and studied in order thatthe nature and the causes of difficulties maybe discoveredand the treatment designed to remove the difficultiesmaybe planned and carried out).
It is a detailed study of an individualconducted for the purpose of bringingabout better adjustment of the person whois the subject of the investigation. All information gathered about anindividual.
PURPOSE OF CASE STUDY Provide increased understanding of thestudent.
RELIABLE SOURCES OFINFORMATION Cumulative Records Observations Interviews Autobiographies Self-reports Tests Teacher Reactions School Records
ASSEMBLING AND ORGANIZINGDATA To collect for the school records allimportant information pertaining to thestudent. Interview those who have contact with thestudent including subject teachers, classadviser, librarian, friends and possiblyparents.
To interview the student himself andperhaps to give him additional tests. Whena complete data about the student havebeen collected, the case should be writtenand a tentative diagnosis and plan oftreatment should be formulated.
PLANNING THE CASE STUDY If possible, choose a student from one ofyour classes who you feel needs attentionand help, and who will cooperate with you. Select a case in which you are interested,both for the standpoint of the nature of thecase and the personality of the individualconcerned.
When considering various students, givesome thought to the shy, quiet and retiringstudent. Students of this type aresometimes interesting subjects for casestudy than students whose difficulties orbehavior cause them to be notices. Plan only as much as you feel that you canaccomplish.
Plan only as much as you feel thatyou can accomplish
PRINCIPLES TO BE OBSERVED INWRITING THE CASE Write objectively, simply and withdirectedness – the description of the caseshould be as objective and the interpretationshould be as impersonal as possible.
Use both general statements andspecific illustrations. Eliminate irrelevant items, confinethe case report to a few type writtenpages.
SUGGESTIONS TO CLARIFY PROBLEMS INAPPLYING AND EVALUATING TREATMENT A case investigator should not attempt toapply treatment for difficulties that areentirely outside his experience. If theproblem is one of the reading or studydifficulty, he should be able to offer thestudent valuable help in learning.
During the period of treatment, the caseinvestigator should keep a careful journalrecord of the progress of treatment. He shoulddepend upon his memory but keep a record ofhis interview.
If the case is the kind that leads itself tomeasurement, comparable tests should beadministered at the beginning and the end ofthe treatment. After the case has been released fromtreatment, it should be followed up and theindividual under observation for a few monthsto make sure that a relapse does not takeplace.
ADVANTAGES OF CASE STUDY It permits the person to be understood andtreated as an individual. It also provides a basis for more completeunderstanding and gives a more accurateevaluation of events, thus preventingsuperficiality and quick judgments.
It can reduce the number of errors indiagnosis by ensuring that the individualthoroughly studies the facts of the clients’presents.
SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR CASESTUDY Statement of the Problem Analysis of Data Synthesis of the Problem Diagnosis Counseling Techniques Prognosis Follow-up