Action research in guidance made easy


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Action research in guidance made easy

  1. 1. Presented by: JAYSON S. HERNANDEZ Guidance Counselor I San Miguel National High School
  2. 2. At the end of the training, participants are expected to:  Explore general questions about a research topic of interest.  Provide the participants of essential knowledge in basic guide in doing of action research.
  3. 3.  Direction: List down issues/problems (or topics like motivation, personal experience, emotions, identity, attraction, prejudice or interpersonal relations and conflict, etc.) in your school, municipality or district as many as you can. Then, rank 3 from all listed issues/problems: 1 for severe; 2 for moderate; and 3 for mild. From the rank 1 or severe issue/problem, think of general questions and write it down on your activity sheet.
  4. 4. As the name suggests, action research is a methodology which has the dual aims of action and research...   Action - to bring about change in some community or organization or program Research - to increase understanding on the part of the researcher or the client, or both (and often some wider community)
  5. 5.  Action research is a form of investigation designed for use by teachers to attempt to solve problems and improve professional practices in their own classrooms. It involves systematic observations and data collection which can be then used by the practitioner-researcher in reflection, decision-making and the development of more effective classroom strategies (Parsons and Brown ,2002).
  6. 6.  Action research is a natural part of teaching. Teachers are continually observing students, collecting data and changing practices to improve student learning and the classroom and school environment. Action research provides a framework that guides the energies of teachers toward a better understanding of why, when, and how students become better learners (A. Christine Miller, 2007).
  7. 7.  Action Research is the study of a social situation with a view of improving the quality of action within it. It aims to feed practical judgment in concrete situations, and the validity of the theories or hypotheses it generates depends not so much on scientific tests of truth, as on their usefulness in helping people to act more intelligently and skillfully. In action research theories are not validated independently and then applied to practice. They are validated through practice (John Elliott, 1991).
  8. 8.  Stephen Kemmis has developed a simple model of the cyclical nature of the typical action research process. Each cycle has four steps: plan, act, observe, reflect.
  9. 9. Simple Action Research Model By Stephen Kemmis
  10. 10.  Gerald Susman (1983) gives a somewhat more elaborate listing. He distinguishes five phases to be conducted within each research cycle. Initially, a problem is identified and data is collected for a more detailed diagnosis. This is followed by a collective postulation of several possible solutions, from which a single plan of action emerges and is implemented. Data on the results of the intervention are collected and analyzed, and the findings are interpreted in light of how successful the action has been. At this point, the problem is re-assessed and the process begins another cycle. This process continues until the problem is resolved.
  11. 11. Detailed Action Research Model By Gerald Susman
  12. 12. 1. Selecting an area or focus  Identifying an area of interest  Focus on students  Look at both immediate and cumulative effects 2. Collecting data  Collect existing archival data  Use additional multiple data sources  Collect data regularly  Promote collective ownership of data  Monitor data collection 3. Organizing data  Count instances, events, and artifacts  Display data in tables and charts  Arrange data by classroom, grade level, and school  Organize for analysis
  13. 13. 4. Analyzing and interpreting data  Analyze and question the data as a professional collective  Decide what can be celebrated and what needs attention  Determine priority area(s) for action 4.5 Studying the professional literature  Identify professional literature that relates to or matches the interest  Gather research reports, research syntheses, articles, videotapes, etc.  Analyze and interpret these materials for understanding and action  Determine the most promising actions
  14. 14. 5. Taking action  Combine data analysis with that from professional literature  Select best options for action  Craft short- and long-term action plans  Implement some actions immediately  Assess implementation of selected actions
  15. 15.    It is concern to improve quality of human action and practice. The focus is on the immediate concern to practitioners. Action research is collaborative. It implies a shared community of discourse between insiders and outsiders and those practitioners are not merely treated as clients but as co-investigators.
  16. 16.     It is conducted in a natural setting where the problem is encountered. Action research is participatory in nature. Those affected participate in research and implementation of preferred solutions. It focuses on the case or a single unit. Action research examines a single case and a sample population, for instance, the classroom or the school. There is no attempt to control setting variables.
  17. 17.     The problem, aims, and methodology may shift as inquiry proceeds. Action research does not consider problems as fixed. Action research is evaluative-reflective. Action research is methodologically eclectic-innovative. It is scientific. By stating problems, formulate action hypotheses the action researcher exercises rigorous scientific principle of procedures.
  18. 18.     Usefulness or utility value should be shared among the participants. Dialogue and discourse-based nature. In action research understanding can only be achieved through unconstrained dialogue with project participants. Action research is critical. Critique is pivotal aspects of the process and an important step towards understanding interpretation and emancipation. Action research is emancipatory. It attempts to give participants greater autonomy through collective reflection.
  19. 19. 1. Field Notes  Advantages: simple, ongoing, personal, aide-memoire  Disadvantages: subjective, needs practice  Uses: specific issue, case study, general impression 2. Audiotape Recording  Advantages: versatile, accurate, provides ample data  Disadvantages: transcription difficult, time-consuming, often inhibiting  Uses: detailed evidence, diagnostic
  20. 20. 3. Diaries  Advantages: provides researcher/participants' perspective  Disadvantages: subjective  Uses: diagnostic, triangulation 4. Interviews and Discussions  Advantages: can be teacher-student, observer-student, student-student  Disadvantages: time-consuming  Uses: specific, in-depth information
  21. 21. 5. Videotape Recordings  Advantages: visual, comprehensive  Disadvantages: awkward and expensive; can be distracting  Uses: visual material, diagnostic 6. Questionnaires  Advantages: highly specific; easy to administer; comparative  Disadvantages: time-consuming to analyze; problem of "right" answers  Uses: specific information; feedback
  22. 22. 7. Sociometry  Advantages: easy to administer; provides guide to action  Disadvantages: can threaten isolated students  Uses: analyzes social relationships 8. Documentary Evidence  Advantages: illuminative  Disadvantages: difficult to obtain; time-consuming  Uses: provides context and information
  23. 23. 9. Slide/tape, Video Stills, & Photography  Advantages: illuminative; promotes discussion  Disadvantages: difficult to obtain; expensive  Uses: illustrates critical incidents 10. Case Study  Advantages: accurate; representative; uses range of techniques  Disadvantages: time-consuming  Uses: comprehensive overview of an issue; publishable format
  24. 24. Cover Page  Clearly printed name and/or logo of the school  Title of the Action Research – Pyramid style  Name of Researcher  Date of Submission Table of Contents  Correct pagination  Appendices for tables and graphs  References
  25. 25. I Abstract – summary of the study with this following information: Title of research, problems, subject of the study, locale/school, respondents (if any), data gathering tools, statistical technique used, and findings.
  26. 26. II Introduction (Situation – with baseline data which were the basis of the identified problems) III Statement of the Problem – questions should be measurable
  27. 27. IV Conceptual Frame work Independent Variable Dependent Variable Independent Variable – intervention applied to solve the problems. Dependent Variable – a variable affected or expected to be affected by the independent variable
  28. 28. V Brief Review of Literature  Relevant research and how it applies to your problem. VI Methodology (Plan of Action)  Design – what kind of research  Locale – school, district + grade or year  Date when the study is conducted  Respondents – teachers, principals, parents, pupils, guidance counselor, etc.  Strategy/ies used to collect the data  Data Collected  Statistical Tools – frequency, mean, regression, ANOVA, etc
  29. 29. VII Findings and Discussion (Interpretation and Analysis of Data Collected)  Describe how you interpreted the data you collected. Include raw data (can be number in table format quotes, etc.) VIII Conclusions  What are your over-all conclusions? (Relate this back to your research question/problem and to the relevant research).
  30. 30. IX Recommendations  This includes your suggestions to utilize the interventions in larger population, other school, district or division, and other school year. X References
  31. 31. Prepared by: _____________________ Proponent _____________________ District Supervisor Noted: _____________________ Principal Checked and Reviewed by: Division Checking Committee _________________ EPS (concerned subject area) AGNES R. BERNARDO EPS – Research & Evaluation Recommending Approval: BERNADETTE F. TAMAYO Assistant Schools Division Superintendent (Sec.) GREGORIO C. QUINTO Assistant Schools Division Superintendent (Elem.) APPROVED: ROMEO M. ALIP, Ph.D. , CESO V Schools Division Superintendent
  32. 32. Title: Family, Individual, Community and School (FICS) Analysis of Students-At-Risk of Dropping Out (SARDO): Groundwork for San Miguel National High School's Dropout Reduction Program (DORP) for School Year 2013- 2014   Researcher: Rosauro A. Villanueva
  33. 33.  Abstract: This study entitled “Family, Individual, Community, and School (FICS) Analysis of Students-at-Risk of Dropping Out (SARDO): Groundwork for San Miguel National High School’s Drop-Out Reduction Program (DORP) for School Year 20132014” was conducted to determine the factors that influenced the students at risk of dropping out and assess if the interventions initiated by the school authorities have been effective in addressing the needs and concerns of the students. The investigation utilized the Family, Individual, Community, and School (FICS) Analysis to identify the SARDOs and for the evaluation of the School-Initiated Intervention (SII), SWOT analysis was used.
  34. 34.  Of the 128 identified SARDOs, majority are males across Grade/Year levels outnumbering the females by a 1:5 ratio. The most number of male SARDOs are Grade VII while the most number of female SARDOs are Grade VIII. Based on the FICS analysis, across all Grade/Year levels, 62.0 percent of the cases are individual-related followed by family-related cases at 32.0 per cent then community-related cases at 4.0 per cent and the least among these, school-related cases at 2.0 per cent. The most frequent individual-related reason is lack of interest in one’s studies while the least frequent reasons are the presence of unhealthy recreational facilities near the school campus and lack of parental interest in their child’s education.
  35. 35.  With respect to the school-initiated intervention utilized for each SARDO, the most frequent is consultation with the parents and also, regular monitoring of the student. The SWOT analysis of the School-Initiated Interventions (SII) implied that these are helpful and useful to the SARDO on a case-to-case basis if the school authorities and the parents collaborate consistently toward the common goal of helping and supporting him. Further fine tuning of the Guidance and Counseling program is recommended as well as sourcing out financial support from potential benefactors for the enhancement and upgrading of its activities and programs.