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Schizophrenia

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Schizophrenia

  1. 1. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 1
  2. 2. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 2 Do you know someone who seems like he or she has “lost touch” with reality? Does this person talk about “hearing voices” no one else can hear? Does he or she see and feel things no one else can? Does this person believe things that aren‟t true? Sometimes people with these symptoms
  3. 3. What is Schizophrenia ? Search Your text here JRA Web Pictures Clips Maps News Shop Email more
  4. 4. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 5 • a chronic, severe and debilitating mental illness. • considered one of the psychotic mental disorders and is characterized by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. • person's thinking is completely out of touch with reality at times.
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  6. 6. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 7 Anyone can develop schizophrenia. It affects men and women equally in all ethnic groups. Teens can also develop schizophrenia. In rare cases, children have the illness too.
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  8. 8. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 9 Statistics shows that schizophrenia affects men about one and a half times more commonly than women and that 50% of people in hospital psychiatric care have schizophrenia. Diagnosis is usually in people aged 17-35 years with the illness appearing earlier in men (in the late teens or early 20s) than in women (who are affected in the 20s to
  9. 9. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 10 Fewer studies on schizophrenia in children compared to adults, researchers find out that children as young as 6 years old can be found to have all the symptoms of their adult counterparts and continue to have those symptoms into
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  11. 11. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 12 Several factors may contribute to schizophrenia, including: • Genes, because the illness runs in families • The environment, such as viruses and nutrition problems before birth • Different brain structure and brain chemistry.
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  13. 13. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 14 Schizophrenia Symptoms range from mild to severe. There are Four main types of symptoms. 1. Positive (More Overtly Psychotic) Symptoms 2. Negative (Deficit) Symptoms 3. Cognitive Symptoms 4. Affective (or Mood)
  14. 14. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 15 1. Positive (More Overtly Psychotic) Symptoms • refer to a distortion of a person‟s normal thinking and functioning. They are “psychotic” behaviors. People with these symptoms are sometimes unable to tell what‟s real from what is imagined. Positive symptoms
  15. 15. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 16 Halluci- nations when a person sees, hears, smells, or feels things that no one else can. “Hearing voices” is common for people with schizophrenia. People who hear voices may hear them for a long time before family or friends notice a problem.
  16. 16. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 17 Delusion s when a person believes things that are not true. For example, a person may believe that people on the radio and television are talking directly to him or her. Sometimes people believe that they are in danger— that other people are trying to hurt them.
  17. 17. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 18 Thought Disorders ways of thinking that are not usual or helpful. People with thought disorders may have trouble organizing their thoughts. Sometimes a person will stop talking in the middle of a thought. And some people make up words that have no meaning.
  18. 18. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 19 Movement Disorders may appear as agitated body movements. A person with a movement disorder may repeat certain motions over and over. In the other extreme, a person may stop moving or talking for a while, a rare condition called “catatonia.”
  19. 19. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 20 Disorganized behaviors Catatonic behaviors
  20. 20. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 21 2. Negative (Deficit) Symptoms •refer to difficulty showing emotions or functioning normally. When a person with schizophrenia has negative symptoms, it may look like depression. People with negative symptoms may:
  21. 21. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 22 Talk in a dull voice Show no facial expression, like a smile or frown
  22. 22. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 23 Have trouble in having fun Difficulty in taking care of themselves
  23. 23. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 24 Social withdrawal Talk very little to other people, even when they need to.
  24. 24. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 25 3. Cognitive Symptoms •include difficulties attending to and processing of information, in understanding the environment, and in remembering simple
  25. 25. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 26 4. Affective (or Mood) Symptoms •The most notable affective symptom is depression, which accounts for a very high rate of attempted suicide in people suffering from
  26. 26. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 27 Types of Schizophrenia
  27. 27. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 28 Paranoid Schizophrenia Disorganized Schizophrenia Catatonic schizophrenia Undifferentiated Schizophrenia Residual Schizophrenia
  28. 28. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 29 1. Paranoid Schizophrenia Paranoid-characterized by delusions and auditory hallucinations but relatively normal intellectual functioning and expression of affect.  People with paranoid-type schizophrenia can exhibit anger, aloofness, anxiety, and argumentativeness.
  29. 29. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 30 Common characteristics of people who tend to be paranoid include:poor self-image social isolation an expectation that others are trying to take advantage of them an inability to relax an inability to work with others a deep mistrust of others an inability to let go of insults or to forgive others a poor sense of humor
  30. 30. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 31 2. Disorganized Schizophrenia Disorganized-characterized by speech and behavior that are disorganized or difficult to understand, and flattening or inappropriate emotions.  People with disorganized- type schizophrenia may laugh at the changing color of a traffic light or at something not closely related to what they are
  31. 31. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 32 Disorganized Schizophrenia  Their disorganized behavior may disrupt normal activities, such as showering, dressing, and preparing meals.
  32. 32. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 33 3. Catatonic Schizophrenia Characterized by disturbances of movement. People with catatonic-type schizophrenia may keep themselves completely immobile or move all over the place.
  33. 33. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 34 4. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia • Characterized by episodes of two or more of the following symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior, catatonic behavior or negative symptoms, but the individual does not qualify for a diagnosis of paranoid, disorganized, or catatonic.
  34. 34. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 35 5. Residual Schizophrenia •Characterized by a past history of at least one episode of schizophrenia, but the person currently has no positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech or behavior).
  35. 35. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 36 5. Residual Schizophrenia •It may represent a transition between a full- blown episode and complete remission, or it may continue for years without any further psychotic episodes.
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  37. 37. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 38 A. Antipsychotic Medications are helpful to people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and some forms of bipolar disorder. They are able to reduce, or sometimes eliminate, the distressing and disabling symptoms of psychosis, such as paranoia, confused thinking, delusions and hallucinations, so that the person taking them feels better.
  38. 38. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 39 There are two types of antipsychotic medications: 1. atypical (newer) and 2. typical (older) Helpful to people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and some forms of bipolar disorder. They are able to reduce, or sometimes eliminate, the distressing and disabling symptoms of psychosis, such as paranoia, confused thinking, delusions and hallucinations, so that the person taking them feels better.
  39. 39. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 40 Advantages of Atypical Medications
  40. 40. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 41 •Fewer side-effects such as trembling or stiffening of muscles. •Less risk of developing „tardive dyskinesia‟: movement of the mouth, tongue and sometimes other parts of the body over which the person has no control.
  41. 41. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 42 A. Antipsychotic Medications•Some evidence suggests that the newer medications may be effective in improving overall mood, thinking and motivation. •Antipsychotics, like many medications, change the way you feel. This means that if you stop taking the medication you may start to feel the way you did before the treatment
  42. 42. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 43 A. Antipsychotic Medications•However, antipsychotic medications are not addictive, and you will not become dependant on them (you do not need to take higher and higher doses to get the same benefits).
  43. 43. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 44 What about injections – depot medication?
  44. 44. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 45  Depot medication is given by injection, which releases the drug slowly over some weeks. Some people prefer injections as they find remembering to take tablets difficult. Some people are required to take depot medication as a condition of a community treatment order.
  45. 45. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 46 Side Effects
  46. 46. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 47  dry mouth low blood pressure lower sexual responsiveness tiredness loss of periods in women dizziness stiffness or trembling in muscles nausea, constipation mild involuntary movements
  47. 47. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 48 B. Mood-stabilizer Medications  lithium (Lithobid) divalproex (Depakote) carbamazepine lamotrigine (Lamictal)
  48. 48. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 49 B. Mood-stabilizer Medications These medicines are available in syrup, tablet, capsule, and chewable tablet forms. Can be useful in treating mood swings that sometimes occur in individuals who have a diagnosable mood disorder in addition to psychotic
  49. 49. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 50 Examples B. Mood-stabilizer Medicines Generic Name Brand New carbamazepine Equetro, Tegretol divalproex Depakote valproate Depakene syrup
  50. 50. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 51 Side Effects
  51. 51. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 52 Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Trembling. Increased thirst and increased need to urinate. Weight gain in the first few months of use. Drowsiness. A metallic taste in the mouth. Abnormalities in kidney function. Abnormalities in thyroid
  52. 52. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 53 C. Antidepressants Medications: Examples of antidepressants that are commonly prescribed for that purpose include: serotonergic (SSRI) medications that affect serotonin levels like fluoxetine (Prozac) sertraline (Zoloft) paroxetine (Paxil) citalopram (Celexa) escitalopram (Lexapro)
  53. 53. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 54 C. Antidepressants Medications: •Antidepressant medications are the primary medical treatment for the depression that can often accompany schizophrenia. •Used under the guidance of a mental health professional, may relieve some of your depression symptoms. But antidepressants also come with significant side effects and dangers.
  54. 54. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 55 C. Antidepressants Medications: •Recent studies have raised questions about their effectiveness. At the very least, it‟s clear that medication alone isn‟t enough—you also need to make changes in your lifestyle. Learning the facts about antidepressants and weighing the benefits against the risks can help you make an informed and personal decision about what‟s right for you.
  55. 55. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 56 Side Effects
  56. 56. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 57 Nausea Insomnia Anxiety Restlessness Decreased sex drive Dizziness Weight gain Tremors Sweating Sleepiness or fatigue Dry mouth Diarrhea Constipation Headaches
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  58. 58. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 59 Family Psycho- education This form of treatment consists of providing family support, problem- solving skills, and access to care providers during times of crises. When this intervention is consistently provided for at least several months, it has been found to decrease the relapse rate for the individual with schizophrenia and improve the person's social and emotional outcomes.
  59. 59. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 60 Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): This intervention consists of members of the person's treatment team meeting with that individual on a daily basis, in community settings (for example, home, work, or other places the person with schizophrenia frequents) rather than in an office or hospital setting. The treatment team is made up of a variety of
  60. 60. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 61 Substance Abuse Treatment Providing medical and psychosocial interventions that address substance abuse should be an integral part of treatment as about 50% of individuals with schizophrenia suffer from some kind of substance abuse or dependence.
  61. 61. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 62 Social Skills Training Also called illness management and recovery programming, social-skills training involve teaching clients ways to handle social situations appropriately. It often involves the person scripting (thinking through or role- playing) situations that occur in social settings in order to prepare for those situations when they
  62. 62. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 63 Supported Employment This intervention provides supports like a work coach (someone who periodically or consistently counsels the client in the workplace), as well as instruction on constructing a résumé, interviewing for jobs, and education and support for employers to hire individuals with chronic mental illness.
  63. 63. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 64 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): CBT is a reality-based intervention that focuses on helping a client understand and change patterns that tend to interfere with his or her ability to interact with others and otherwise function.
  64. 64. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 65 Weight Management: Educating people with schizophrenia about weight gain and related health problems that can be a side effect of some antipsychotic and other psychiatric medications has been found to be helpful in resulting in a modest weight loss.
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  67. 67. Free Powerpoint Templates Page 68 Output and Income Lost When willing and able workers do not find employment, they are deprived of income and the economy does not benefit from the output they would have produced.

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