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4.1 Meiosis - Sources of Genetic Variation (by Jennifer)

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4.1 Meiosis - Sources of Genetic Variation (by Jennifer)

  1. 1. How is variation produced in a population? Jennifer Oh (SL)Tuesday, 22 November 11 1
  2. 2. What is genetic variation?Tuesday, 22 November 11 2
  3. 3. What is genetic variation? Variation in alleles of genesTuesday, 22 November 11 2
  4. 4. What is genetic variation? Variation in alleles of genes Occurs within and among populationsTuesday, 22 November 11 2
  5. 5. What is genetic variation? Variation in alleles of genes Occurs within and among populations The “raw material” of natural selectionTuesday, 22 November 11 2
  6. 6. Sources of Genetic VariationTuesday, 22 November 11 3
  7. 7. Sources of Genetic Variation MutationsTuesday, 22 November 11 3
  8. 8. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutationsTuesday, 22 November 11 3
  9. 9. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutationsTuesday, 22 November 11 3
  10. 10. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual ReproductionTuesday, 22 November 11 3
  11. 11. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction RecombinationTuesday, 22 November 11 3
  12. 12. Sources of Genetic Variation Mutations Gene mutations Chromosome mutations Sexual Reproduction Recombination Mate selectionTuesday, 22 November 11 3
  13. 13. Assessment Statements These are the assessment statements that deal with this topic:Tuesday, 22 November 11 4
  14. 14. Assessment Statements These are the assessment statements that deal with this topic: 4.1.2 Define gene, allele, and genome 4.1.3 Define gene mutation State that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus 4.2.1 to form haploid nuclei Outline the process of meiosis, including pairing of 4.2.3 homologous chromosomes and crossing over, followed by t wo divisions, which results in four haploid cells Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, 4.3.1 codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier and test crossTuesday, 22 November 11 4
  15. 15. Basic VocabularyTuesday, 22 November 11 5
  16. 16. Basic Vocabulary Before diving into the details of genetic variation, here are some basic terms that you need to know for this topic.Tuesday, 22 November 11 5
  17. 17. Basic Vocabulary Before diving into the details of genetic variation, here are some basic terms that you need to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2Tuesday, 22 November 11 5
  18. 18. Basic Vocabulary Before diving into the details of genetic variation, here are some basic terms that you need to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, GenomeTuesday, 22 November 11 5
  19. 19. Basic Vocabulary Before diving into the details of genetic variation, here are some basic terms that you need to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome From assessment statement 4.3.1Tuesday, 22 November 11 5
  20. 20. Basic Vocabulary Before diving into the details of genetic variation, here are some basic terms that you need to know for this topic. From assessment statement 4.1.2 Gene, Allele, Genome From assessment statement 4.3.1 Genotype, phenotypeTuesday, 22 November 11 5
  21. 21. 4.1.2 VocabTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  22. 22. 4.1.2 Vocab Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristicTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  23. 23. 4.1.2 Vocab Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristicTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  24. 24. 4.1.2 Vocab Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristicTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  25. 25. 4.1.2 Vocab Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic Allele - one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the geneTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  26. 26. 4.1.2 Vocab Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic Allele - one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the geneTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  27. 27. 4.1.2 Vocab Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic Allele - one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the geneTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  28. 28. 4.1.2 Vocab Gene - a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic Allele - one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene Genome - the whole genetic information of an organismTuesday, 22 November 11 6
  29. 29. 4.3.1 VocabTuesday, 22 November 11 7
  30. 30. 4.3.1 Vocab Genotype - the alleles of an organism; determines the genetic potentialTuesday, 22 November 11 7
  31. 31. 4.3.1 Vocab Genotype - the alleles of an organism; determines the genetic potential Phenotype - the characteristics of an organismTuesday, 22 November 11 7
  32. 32. MutationTuesday, 22 November 11 8
  33. 33. Mutation Mutations are the source of all new genetic informationTuesday, 22 November 11 8
  34. 34. Mutation Mutations are the source of all new genetic information Not always harmful, some are neutral or beneficialTuesday, 22 November 11 8
  35. 35. Mutation Mutations are the source of all new genetic information Not always harmful, some are neutral or beneficial Can be accumulated over many generationsTuesday, 22 November 11 8
  36. 36. Mutation Mutations are the source of all new genetic information Not always harmful, some are neutral or beneficial Can be accumulated over many generations Gene mutation (4.1.3)Tuesday, 22 November 11 8
  37. 37. Mutation Mutations are the source of all new genetic information Not always harmful, some are neutral or beneficial Can be accumulated over many generations Gene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an alleleTuesday, 22 November 11 8
  38. 38. Mutation Mutations are the source of all new genetic information Not always harmful, some are neutral or beneficial Can be accumulated over many generations Gene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an allele Chromosome mutationTuesday, 22 November 11 8
  39. 39. Mutation Mutations are the source of all new genetic information Not always harmful, some are neutral or beneficial Can be accumulated over many generations Gene mutation (4.1.3) Change in the base sequence of an allele Chromosome mutation Pieces of chromosomes may be rearranged during meiosisTuesday, 22 November 11 8
  40. 40. MutationTuesday, 22 November 11 9
  41. 41. Sexual ReproductionTuesday, 22 November 11 10
  42. 42. Sexual Reproduction Provides rearrangement and shuffling of the genetic material into new combinationsTuesday, 22 November 11 10
  43. 43. Sexual Reproduction Provides rearrangement and shuffling of the genetic material into new combinations Crossing over - RecombinationTuesday, 22 November 11 10
  44. 44. Sexual Reproduction Provides rearrangement and shuffling of the genetic material into new combinations Crossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologueTuesday, 22 November 11 10
  45. 45. Sexual Reproduction Provides rearrangement and shuffling of the genetic material into new combinations Crossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinationsTuesday, 22 November 11 10
  46. 46. Sexual Reproduction Provides rearrangement and shuffling of the genetic material into new combinations Crossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinations Mate SelectionTuesday, 22 November 11 10
  47. 47. Sexual Reproduction Provides rearrangement and shuffling of the genetic material into new combinations Crossing over - Recombination Pieces of chromosome are often exchanged with a chromosome’s homologue Increases shuffling of allele combinations Mate Selection Different combinations of genes will come together in the offspring depending on which t wo parents mate togetherTuesday, 22 November 11 10
  48. 48. MeiosisTuesday, 22 November 11 11
  49. 49. Meiosis Meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei (4.2.1)Tuesday, 22 November 11 11
  50. 50. Meiosis Meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei (4.2.1) For this topic, the important part is: crossing overTuesday, 22 November 11 11
  51. 51. Meiosis Meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei (4.2.1) For this topic, the important part is: crossing over At Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes pair up (synapsis), and segments of the chromosome can be exchangedTuesday, 22 November 11 11
  52. 52. Meiosis Meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei (4.2.1) For this topic, the important part is: crossing over At Prophase I, the homologous chromosomes pair up (synapsis), and segments of the chromosome can be exchanged Important source of variation for the gene pool of a populationTuesday, 22 November 11 11
  53. 53. Watch this video! GREAT video lesson about genetic variation: http://www.khanacademy.org/video/ variation-in-a-species?playlist=BiologyTuesday, 22 November 11 12
  54. 54. i-Biology Link 4.1 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.1 4.2 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.2 4.3 Presentation http://i-biology.net/?s=4.3Tuesday, 22 November 11 13
  55. 55. More exercises For more exercises on this topic, look at these pages from the Biozone workbook. Mutations: p. 197 - 8 Meiosis: p. 185 - 8 Genetic Variation: p. 181 - 2Tuesday, 22 November 11 14
  56. 56. The End!Tuesday, 22 November 11 15

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