6_3_DefenseAgainstInfectious Disease_Louis


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  • Macrophages secrete hormones called cytokines that attract immune system cells to the site and activate cells involved in tissue repair
    Histamine, inflammatory response so that the foreign materials/pathogens are eliminated and the wound is repaired
  • 6_3_DefenseAgainstInfectious Disease_Louis

    1. 1. By Jinsu ChangBy Jinsu Chang
    2. 2. 6.3.1 define pathogen6.3.1 define pathogen  Pathogen is "any living organism or virus that is capable of causing a disease" 
    3. 3. BacteriaBacteria
    4. 4. ProtozoaProtozoa
    5. 5. VirusVirus
    6. 6. FungiFungi
    7. 7. 6.3.2 Explain why antibiotics are effective6.3.2 Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against pathogensagainst bacteria but not against pathogens • Bacteria are Prokaryotic cells • Somatic cells (body cells) are Eukaryotic cells • Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells have different biochemical reactions and pathways • They both have a different structure (Prokaryotes have a cell wall made of Peptidoglycan body cells don’t) • Antibiotics are chemicals that take advantage of the difference between the two!!!! • *No effect on Virus!
    9. 9. Selectively block protein synthesis inSelectively block protein synthesis in bacteria, but no effect on body cellsbacteria, but no effect on body cells
    10. 10. Inhibit the production of new cell wall byInhibit the production of new cell wall by bacteria, which block ability to grow andbacteria, which block ability to grow and divide through binary fissiondivide through binary fission
    11. 11. Preventing the entrance ofPreventing the entrance of pathogens to our bodypathogens to our body  “It is best to prevent than to cure”  There are many ways to prevent entrance of pathogens:  1) Stay away from sources of infection  2) Human body is designed to protect us from pathogens because it is obviously impossible to stay away from all pathogens
    12. 12. SkinSkin Skin is a barrier to infection
    13. 13. DermisDermis The underneath layer of the skin is very much alive. It contains sweat glands, capillaries, sensory receptors and dermal cells that give structure and strength to the skin.
    14. 14. EpidermisEpidermis The layer on top of the dermis. Epidermal layer is constantly replaced as underlying dermal cells die and are moved upwards.
    15. 15. Stomach AcidStomach Acid The layer on top of the dermis. Epidermal layer is constantly replaced as underlying dermal cells die and are moved upwards.
    16. 16. Scab FormationScab Formation Blood Clotting and scab formation stops pathogens from getting in.
    17. 17. TearsTears Tears are antiseptic and kill microbes (pathogens)
    18. 18. MucusMucus  Mucus can trap incoming pathogens and so prevent from reaching cells they could infect.  Some Mucus membrane are lined with cilia, which are hair-like extensions capable of a wave-like movement. This movement moves trapped pathogens up and out of mucous-lined tissues.
    19. 19. Area with mucous membrane What it is and does Trachea Tube which carries air to and from the lungs Nasal Passages Tubes which allow air to enter the nose and then the trachea Urethra Tube which carries urine from bladder to the outside Vagina Reproductive tract leading from uterus to the outside
    20. 20. TracheaTrachea
    21. 21. Nasal PassagesNasal Passages
    22. 22. Role of phagocyticRole of phagocytic LeucocytesLeucocytes  Leucocytes are the cells in our bloodstream that help us fight off pathogens that enter our bodies and also provide us with an immunity for many pathogens we encounter a second time.
    23. 23. MacrophageMacrophage  Macrophages are large white blood cells that are able to change their cellular shape to surround an invader and take it in through phagocytosis.  *Macrophages can easily change their shape. Thus they are able to squeeze their way in and out of capillaries.
    24. 24. MacrophageMacrophage  Recognizes whether the cell is a natural part of the body and therefore ‘self’ or not part of the body and therefore ‘not-self.’  Recognition is based on protein molecules that make up part of the surface of all cells and viruses (antigens).  *Doesn’t recognize which pathogen it is, just determine is ‘self’ or ‘not self’
    25. 25. Macrophages in ActionMacrophages in Action
    26. 26. Macrophage in ActionMacrophage in Action
    27. 27. Antibodies are produced inAntibodies are produced in response to a specific pathogenresponse to a specific pathogen  Leucocytes that produce antibodies are called B lymphocytes.  There are many types of B lymphocytes and each B lymphocyte can produce only one type of antibodies.
    28. 28. Antibodies vs AntigenAntibodies vs Antigen
    29. 29. Steps of a typical ImmuneSteps of a typical Immune responseresponse 1. A specific antigen type is identified 2. A specific B lymphocyte is identified that can produce an antibody which will bind to the antigen 3. The B lymphocyte and several identical B lymp. Clone themselves to increase the number of the same type of B lymp. 4. The newly formed ‘army’ begins antibody production 5. Newly released antibodies circulate in the bloodstream and eventually find their antigen match 6. Using various mechanisms, the antibodies help eliminate the pathogen 7. Some of the cloned B lym. remain and give immunity from a second infection by the same pathogen.
    30. 30. HIV invades Helper T-cellsHIV invades Helper T-cells
    31. 31. Risk Factors in HIVRisk Factors in HIV transmissiontransmission • No risk: – Skin Contact – Toilet Seats – Mosquitoes • Low Risk: – Saliva/kissing – Ingestion – Childbirth • High Risk: – Breast feeding – -Sexual Intercourse – -Blood-Blood contact
    32. 32. Social Implications ofSocial Implications of AIDSAIDS  Social Impacts:  Discrimination and stigma from those around  Abuse and harrassment  May not be able to find work  May not be healthy enough to work  Expense of medications bankrupts families  Risk of spreading in a family or community  Burden of care for the sick