SOLUTIONS
DEFINITION
• a mixture where the components
are uniformly intermingled
• a mixture that is homogeneous
TYPES
• Gaseous solution
• Liquid solution
• Solid solution
Recall
Solute
• what is dissolved in a solution
Mass
• a measure of the amount of matter in
an object (g or kg)
Volume
• m...
Recall
Mole (mol)
• also known as Avogadro's Number
• number that is used in making calculations
involving atoms and molec...
Practice
Calculate the molar mass of the following:
• CO2 = 44.01 grams/mole
• H2O = 18.02 grams/mole
• NaCl = 58.44 grams...
CONCENTRATION
Relative Amounts
of Solute and Solvent
in a Solution
Ways to Express the Relative Amounts
of Solute and Solvent in a Solution
• Percent concentration (by mass; by volume)
• Mo...
● Percent Composition
(by mass; by volume)
We need two pieces of information to calculate
the percent by mass of a solute ...
By mass:
• % (w/w) =
By volume:
• % (v/v) =
100x
solutionmass
solutemass
100x
solutionvolume
solutevolume
● Percent Compos...
Practice
• 10 g salt and 70 g water are mixed to make a
solution. Find the concentration of the
solution by percent mass.
...
Practice
• The concentration by volume of a 1.5 L NaCl
solution is 40 %. Find the amount of solute in
this solution.
0.6 L
● Molarity (M)
Molarity tells us the number of moles of solute
in exactly one liter of a solution.
We need two pieces of i...
● Molarity (M)
Practice
• What is the molarity of a solution that
contains 1.724 moles of H2SO4 in 2.50 L of
solution?
0.690 M H2SO4
Practice
• What is the molarity of a solution prepared by
dissolving 25.0 g of HCl (g) in enough water to
make 150.0 mL of...
● Molality (m)
Molality, m, tells us the number of moles of
solute dissolved in exactly one kilogram of
solvent.
We need t...
● Molality (m)
Recall: density of water = 1.00 g / mL or 1 kg/L
Practice
• Suppose you had 58.44 grams of NaCl and you
dissolved it in exactly 2.00 kg of pure water.
What would be the mo...
Practice
• 80.0 grams of glucose (C6H12O6, mol. wt = 180
g/mol) is dissolved in 1.00 L of water. What is
its molality?
0.4...
● Mole Fraction (X)
The mole fraction, X, of a component in a
solution is the ratio of the number of moles
of that compone...
● Mole Fraction (X)
NOTE:
The sum of the mole fractions
for each component in a solution will be equal to
Practice
• A solution is prepared by mixing 25.0 g of
water, H2O, and 25.0 g of ethanol, C2H5OH.
Determine the mole fracti...
COLLOIDS
• a heterogeneous system in which
one substance is dispersed
(dispersed phase) as very fine
particles in another substance...
• the size of the dispersed molecule is
larger than a simple molecule
(having diameter between 1 to 1000
nm) but small eno...
• an intermediate state between
suspensions and solutions
THE TYNDALL EFFECT
• colloidal suspensions exhibit light scattering
• named after its discoverer, the 19th-century
British...
TYPES AND EXAMPLES
based on physical state of dispersion
medium and dispersed phase
medium: SOLID
phase: SOLID
Gemstones
Pearls
Some coloured glass
medium: SOLID
phase: GAS
Pumice Foam Rubber
medium: SOLID
phase: LIQUID
Cheese Shoe polish Butter
Jellies Jam
medium: LIQUID
phase: LIQUID
Milk Hair Cream
Cod liver oil
medium: LIQUID
phase: GAS
Froth
Soap lather
Whipped cream
medium: LIQUID
phase: SOLID
Paints
Gum
Muddy water
medium: GAS
phase: LIQUID
Fog
Clouds
Insecticide spray
medium: GAD
phase: SOLID
Smoke Dust
medium: GAS
phase: GAS
At a glance
MEDIUM  PHASE SOLID LIQUID GAS
SOLID Solis Sols
gemstones, pearls,
some coloured glass
Gels
cheese, butter,
sh...
e o s
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  1. 1. SOLUTIONS
  2. 2. DEFINITION • a mixture where the components are uniformly intermingled • a mixture that is homogeneous
  3. 3. TYPES • Gaseous solution • Liquid solution • Solid solution
  4. 4. Recall Solute • what is dissolved in a solution Mass • a measure of the amount of matter in an object (g or kg) Volume • measures the size of an object using length measurements in three dimensions (ml or L)
  5. 5. Recall Mole (mol) • also known as Avogadro's Number • number that is used in making calculations involving atoms and molecules • 1 mol is equal to 6.022 x 1023 atoms or molecules • Molar Mass (MM) of elements and compounds is the mass, in grams, equal to the atomic and formula masses of those elements and compounds. The unit of Molar Mass is grams/mole
  6. 6. Practice Calculate the molar mass of the following: • CO2 = 44.01 grams/mole • H2O = 18.02 grams/mole • NaCl = 58.44 grams/mole
  7. 7. CONCENTRATION Relative Amounts of Solute and Solvent in a Solution
  8. 8. Ways to Express the Relative Amounts of Solute and Solvent in a Solution • Percent concentration (by mass; by volume) • Molarity (M) • Molality (m) • Mole fraction (X)
  9. 9. ● Percent Composition (by mass; by volume) We need two pieces of information to calculate the percent by mass of a solute in a solution: • mass/volume of the solute in the solution • mass/volume of the solution
  10. 10. By mass: • % (w/w) = By volume: • % (v/v) = 100x solutionmass solutemass 100x solutionvolume solutevolume ● Percent Composition (by mass; by volume)
  11. 11. Practice • 10 g salt and 70 g water are mixed to make a solution. Find the concentration of the solution by percent mass. 12.5 %
  12. 12. Practice • The concentration by volume of a 1.5 L NaCl solution is 40 %. Find the amount of solute in this solution. 0.6 L
  13. 13. ● Molarity (M) Molarity tells us the number of moles of solute in exactly one liter of a solution. We need two pieces of information to calculate the molarity of a solute in a solution: • moles of solute present in the solutio • volume of solution (in liters) containing the solute
  14. 14. ● Molarity (M)
  15. 15. Practice • What is the molarity of a solution that contains 1.724 moles of H2SO4 in 2.50 L of solution? 0.690 M H2SO4
  16. 16. Practice • What is the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 25.0 g of HCl (g) in enough water to make 150.0 mL of solution? 4.57 M HCl
  17. 17. ● Molality (m) Molality, m, tells us the number of moles of solute dissolved in exactly one kilogram of solvent. We need two pieces of information to calculate the molality of a solute in a solution: • moles of solute present in the solution • mass of solvent (in kilograms) in the solution
  18. 18. ● Molality (m) Recall: density of water = 1.00 g / mL or 1 kg/L
  19. 19. Practice • Suppose you had 58.44 grams of NaCl and you dissolved it in exactly 2.00 kg of pure water. What would be the molality of the solution? 0.5 m
  20. 20. Practice • 80.0 grams of glucose (C6H12O6, mol. wt = 180 g/mol) is dissolved in 1.00 L of water. What is its molality? 0.44 m
  21. 21. ● Mole Fraction (X) The mole fraction, X, of a component in a solution is the ratio of the number of moles of that component to the total number of moles of all components in the solution. To calculate mole fraction, we need to know: • number of moles of each component present in the solution
  22. 22. ● Mole Fraction (X) NOTE: The sum of the mole fractions for each component in a solution will be equal to
  23. 23. Practice • A solution is prepared by mixing 25.0 g of water, H2O, and 25.0 g of ethanol, C2H5OH. Determine the mole fractions of each substance. XH2O = 0.71 XC2H5OH = 0.29
  24. 24. COLLOIDS
  25. 25. • a heterogeneous system in which one substance is dispersed (dispersed phase) as very fine particles in another substance called dispersion medium DEFINITION
  26. 26. • the size of the dispersed molecule is larger than a simple molecule (having diameter between 1 to 1000 nm) but small enough to remain suspended
  27. 27. • an intermediate state between suspensions and solutions
  28. 28. THE TYNDALL EFFECT • colloidal suspensions exhibit light scattering • named after its discoverer, the 19th-century British physicist John Tyndall • a special instance of diffraction (bending of light) • often used as a measure of the existence of a colloid • visible in colloids as weak as 0.1 ppm (exception?)
  29. 29. TYPES AND EXAMPLES based on physical state of dispersion medium and dispersed phase
  30. 30. medium: SOLID phase: SOLID Gemstones Pearls Some coloured glass
  31. 31. medium: SOLID phase: GAS Pumice Foam Rubber
  32. 32. medium: SOLID phase: LIQUID Cheese Shoe polish Butter Jellies Jam
  33. 33. medium: LIQUID phase: LIQUID Milk Hair Cream Cod liver oil
  34. 34. medium: LIQUID phase: GAS Froth Soap lather Whipped cream
  35. 35. medium: LIQUID phase: SOLID Paints Gum Muddy water
  36. 36. medium: GAS phase: LIQUID Fog Clouds Insecticide spray
  37. 37. medium: GAD phase: SOLID Smoke Dust
  38. 38. medium: GAS phase: GAS
  39. 39. At a glance MEDIUM PHASE SOLID LIQUID GAS SOLID Solis Sols gemstones, pearls, some coloured glass Gels cheese, butter, shoe polish, jellies, jam Solid Sols pumice, foam rubber LIQUID Sols gum, paint, muddy water Emulsion milk, hair cream, cod liver oil Foam froth, whipped cream, soap lather GAS Aerosol smoke, dust Aerosol clouds, spray, fog ---
  40. 40. e o s

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