PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge

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  • http://blog.noah.dost.gov.ph/2013/11/22/philippine-storm-surge-history/
  • http://www.stormsurge.noaa.gov/event_history_1950s.html
  • http://www.stormsurge.noaa.gov/event_history_2000s.htmlhttp://www.stormsurge.noaa.gov/event_history_2010s.html
  • PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge

    1. 1. Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge Group Exodus Members: 1.Benj P. Almojuela 2.Angelo A. Asoy 3.Jaymz Rainiel C. Bacho 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 2
    2. 2. Preface Dear Readers, This power point presentation has been designed how to learn what to do when you are hit by this disaster. In this power point presentation you will find the the disaster that struck the world. In this power point you’ll find the study, history and the plan how to do if you are hit by this disaster. This power point contains the study, history and circumstances happens in earth in the past years until now. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 3
    3. 3. Introduction Greetings On Readers, The purpose of my presentation is to introduce the importance of preparedness in case of severe accidents impacting your area and what would make when it hits your area. and you still see the 2 types of movement of water and how they occur more why they are moving and how strong is it when you hit the ground. The two types is Tunami and Storm Surge and you will see the meaning and difference of two movement of water. The one you will see in this presentation are examples only. It took only internet. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 4
    4. 4. Table of Contents Page • • • • • • Chapter 1 History & Background of Tsunami and Storm Surge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 6-13 Chapter 2 Tsunami - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 14 - 41 Storm Surge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 42 - 70 Chapter 3 Similarities and Difference Between Tsunami and Storm Surge - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 71 – 84 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 85 References - - - - - - - - - - PPT --Tsunami-Vs. Storm-Surge - - - - - - 86 - 87 -- -- --- -12/9/2013 5
    5. 5. CHAPTER 1 – History and background of Tsunami and Storm Surge 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 6
    6. 6. CHAPTER 1 HISTORY OF TSUNAMI The word tsunami comes from the Japanese language. In that language the word means harbor wave. Long ago, Japanese fishermen created the word tsunami. They would return from the sea to find that their villages had been destroyed by large waves. They had not been aware of waves large enough to wash away a village while at sea. The waves had traveled through the sea until they reached a point near the land and the water became shallower. The shallow water had caused the wave to be pushed to the surface. In the open water of the ocean, this type of wave could not be detected. These destructive waves are sometimes mistakenly called tidal waves. As the waves approach the land without warning, they can look like a particularly violent tide rushing to the shore. But these waves really have nothing to do with the tide. Scientists don't like to hear people call tsunamis "tidal waves" because of this wrong idea. The "normal" waves that you can see crashing onto the shore are caused by the action of wind on the ocean. Tsunamis are many times caused by an earthquake. Earthquakes are caused when pieces of the earth's crust shift. Energy released by the earthquake causes the water in the ocean to be displaced or moved. You can see this kind of action for yourself. If you bring your hands quickly together underwater in a pool or bathtub, you will see the water above your hands start to form a wave. It has been displaced. The same thing will happen if someone cannonballs into a pool of water. The water will splash out over the sides of the pool. It has been displaced. Tsunamis can also be caused by landslides where large chunks of land suddenly slide into the sea. A meteor landing in the ocean can cause tsunamis, too.
    7. 7. Recent tsunami Date Cause Height Location 1883 Volcanic eruption 35 m 1896 Earthquake 29 m 1933 Earthquake 30 m 1946 Earthquake 15 m 1960 Earthquake 10 m 1964 Earthquake 6m 1992 Earthquake 26 m 1992 Earthquake 26 m 1993 Earthquake 31 m 1994 Earthquake 14 m 1998 Landslide 15 m 2004 Earthquake 30 m 2010 Earthquake 10 m 2011 Earthquake 51.51 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge Country Deaths Indonesia - - - - - 36,000 Japan - - - - - - - 27,000 Japan - - - - - - - 3,000 Alaska - - - - - - - 175 Chile - - - - - - - - 1,250 Alaska - - - - - - - 125 Nicaragua - - - - - 170 Indonesia - - - - - - 1,000 Japan - - - - - - - - - 239 Indonesia - - - - - 238 Papua - - - - - - - - 2,200 Sumatra - - - - - 245,000 Chile - - - - - - - - 214+ Japan - - - - - - - 15,883 88
    8. 8. HISTORY OF STORM SURGE This article is about the meteorological terminology. For the fictional character, see Storm Surge (Transformers). A storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's surface. The wind causes the water to pile up higher than the ordinary sea level. Low pressure at the center of a weather system also has a small secondary effect, as can the bathymetry of the body of water. It is this combined effect of low pressure and persistent wind over a shallow water body which is the most common cause of storm surge flooding problems. The term "storm surge" in casual (non-scientific) use is storm tide; that is, it refers to the rise of water associated with the storm, plus tide, wave run-up, and freshwater flooding. "Tidal surge" is incorrect since there is no such thing. When referring to storm surge height, it is important to clarify the usage, as well as the reference point. The U.S. National Hurricane Center defines storm surge as water height above predicted astronomical tide level, and storm tide as water height above NGVD-29, a 1929 benchmark of mean sea level. Most casualties during a tropical cyclone occur during the storm surge. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 9
    9. 9. In areas where there is a significant difference between low tide and high tide, storm surges are particularly damaging when they occur at the time of a high tide. In these cases, this increases the difficulty of predicting the magnitude of a storm surge since it requires weather forecasts to be accurate to within a few hours. Storm surges can be produced by extratropical cyclones, such as the Night of the Big Wind of 1839 and the Storm of the Century (1993), but the most extreme storm surge events typically occur as a result of tropical cyclones. Factors that determine the surge heights for landfalling tropical cyclones include the speed, intensity, size of the radius of maximum winds (RMW), radius of the wind fields, angle of the track relative to the coastline, the physical characteristics of the coastline and the bathymetry of the water offshore. The SLOSH(Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) model is used to simulate surge from tropical cyclones. Additionally, there is an extratropical storm surge model that is used to predict those effects. The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston, Texas, drove a devastating surge ashore—between 6,000 and 12,000 lives were lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States. The deadliest storm surge caused by a tropical cyclone in the twenty-first century is from Cyclone Nargis which killed more than 138,000 people in Myanmar in May 2008. The next deadliest this century is from Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Haiyan (Yolanda) killed more than 3,600 people in the central Philippines and resulted in economic losses estimated at $14 billion (USD). Extreme storm surges may occur more often due to the effects of global warming. For example, the Marshall Islands are threatened by the potential effects of storm surges as well as sea level rise. A U.S. Geological Survey study found that the Midway Atoll, Laysan, and Pacific islands like them could become inundated and unfit to live on during this century. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 10
    10. 10. Date 1933 1935 1936 1938 1940 1942 1944 1945 1947 1948 1949 1954 1954 1955 1956 1957 1959 1960 12/9/2013 1961 RECENT STORM SURGE IN AMERICA Height location Country 6-10 feet Washngton DC 18-20 feet South Florida 9.3 feet N.Carolina 19-20 feet New England 10.7 feet Georgia N/S.Carolina 14.7 feet Texas 12.28 feet Florida-Cuba 15 feet Texas 16 feet Mississippi GC/New Orleans 12 feet Florida/Georgia/S.Carolina 11.4 feet Texas 10-15 feet Long Island New York 17 feet N/S.Carolina 5-8 feet N.Carolina-Morehead City 7.4 feet Mississippi/New Orleans 12 feet Texas-Louisiana Border 10 feet South Carolina 15-20 feet Florida Keys 18.5 feet PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge Port o’Connor ,TX Deaths 18 423 1 564 50 8 18 3 51 1 2 60 95 25 15 416 10 50 11 46
    11. 11. 1964 1964 1965 1966 1969 1970 1972 1979 1980 1983 1985 1985 1989 1991 1992 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 12/9/2013 1996 10-12 feet NorthernEast Florida 10 feet Central Louisiana Coast 10-12 feet Southern Florida 10 feet Cuba-Florida Keys 15-32 feet Bay St.Louis,MS 11.4 feet Corpus Christi, Texas 6-7 feet Cape San Blas Florida 8-12 feet Dauphin Island , AL 15-20 feet Brownsville, TX 10-12 feet Continental US-S.Texas 10 feet Biloxi, MS 4-8 feet Morgan City, LA 13-20 feet N/S.Carolina 8-17 feet Rhode Island 16.9 feet Florida 30 feet Hawaii 10.2 feet N.Carolina 3-5 feet Florida 5-14 feet Pensacola Beach, FL 5-6 feet Wilmington, NC PPT 8-12 feet - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge N.Carolina Coast 1 38 81 6 256 13 122 11 2 21 4 12 21 2 26 7 3 30 9 12 12 26
    12. 12. 1996 1998 1998 1998 1998 1999 2000 2002 2002 2002 2003 2003 2004 2004 2005 2008 2010 2011 2012 12/9/2013 6-9 feet 5-8 feet 3-8 feet 6-8 feet 5-12 feet 3-5 feet 9-10 feet 5-6 feet 8.3 feet 10-12 feet 6-9 feet 6-10 feet 6 feet 6-7 feet 24-28 feet 15-20 feet 19 feet 8-11 feet 4-6 feet Georgia 0 Wilmington, NC 3 Panama City 3 Corpus Christi, TX 1 Key West, FL-Biloxi, MS 602 N.Carolina-Florida 4 Cape Fear, NC 56 N.Carolina 1 Cuba 4 Louisiana Coast 0 Texas 1 N.Carolina-E.Central Virginia 16 N.Caolina 1 S,E.Florida 10 Buras, LA-New Orleans-Mississippi 1500 Galveston-Bolivar 20 Canada 5 Cape,Lookout, NC-New England 41 Louisiana 3 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 13
    13. 13. CHAPTER 2 – Tsunami and Storm Surge Information 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 14
    14. 14. TSUNAMI A view from the beach in Thailand
    15. 15. Tsunami produced by earthquake displacement of ocean floor. Important points: In deep ocean, tsunami has small amplitude and travels with speed of jet airliner. When approaching land, speed slows and amplitude increases dramatically. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 16
    16. 16. Properties of ocean waves & tsunami. Periods Lengths Wind-blown short: 5 seconds 39 meters (130 ft) Ocean waves medium: 10 seconds 156 meters (510 ft) long: 20 seconds 624 meters (2050 ft) Tsunami superlong: 3600 seconds >800 kilometers (60 minutes) (520 miles) LONG period: Wind waves wash on shore for < 5 seconds. Tsunami can wash on shore for 10 - 15 minutes! 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 17
    17. 17. Lithospheric plates What type(s) of plate tectonic boundaries are capable of producing tsunami? 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 18
    18. 18. Convergent Plate Boundaries Ocean /Ocean convergence (Marianas) Ocean /Continent convergence (Cascades) Tsunami are often generated by large and shallow earthquakes at subduction zones where oceanic plates descend into the deeper mantle. These types of earthquakes can produce the rapid displacements of the ocean floor that generate tsunamis. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 19
    19. 19. Lithospheric plates Tooth pattern shows the convergent plate boundaries. Notice that convergent plate boundaries form a large portion of the Pacific Ocean perimeter. The Java Trench is the only area of the Indian Ocean capable of producing tsunami. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 20
    20. 20. The generation of a tsunami by storage and release of elastic energy at a subduction zone. Between earthquakes, rocks near fault bend and store elastic energy. During earthquake, that energy is rapidly released. The displacement of the seafloor produces a mound of water that spreads out into the tsunami.
    21. 21. Lithospheric plates Now examine the plate tectonic boundary at the Java Trench in 12/9/2013 PPT the eastern Indian Ocean. - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 22
    22. 22. December 26, 2004 M 9.1 Main shock and aftershocks Largest earthquake since 1964. Fourth largest earthquake since 1900. ~1200 km of the plate boundary moved; maximum displacement ~ 20 m
    23. 23. Banda Aceh, Sumatra Satellite Images Indicate Land Subsidence Before After Some areas that were above sea level on December 25 dropped below sea level on December 26. This also happened along the Washington - Oregon coast during the 1700 AD great Cascadia earthquake.
    24. 24. Surface waves circling the Earth Paths of surface waves
    25. 25. March 28, 2005 M 8.7 Main shock and aftershocks 7th largest earthquake since 1900! NOT an aftershock. Main shock was outside zone of aftershocks of Dec 26 earthquake. Probably the result of stress changes following 26 December earthquake.
    26. 26. March 28 Event Recorded by UPOR Event occurred at 16:09 UT. First waves at UP ~16:31 UT.
    27. 27. Sumatra earthquakes FAQs Question: What other great (M > 8) earthquakes have occurred in the region? Answer: From Southern Sumatra to the Andaman Islands 1. 1797 Magnitude 8.4 2. 1833 Magnitude 8.7 3. 1861 Magnitude 8.5 4. 2000 Magnitude 7.9 AND March 28, 2005 Magnitude 8.7
    28. 28. Question: What other significant tsunami have occurred in the region? Answer: 1. 1833 South coast of western Sumatra. Southern part of the western Sumatra flooded. 2. 1843 West of central Sumatra. Wave from the south-east flooded coast of the Nias Island. 3. 1861 Strong earthquake affected western Sumatra. Several thousand fatalities. 4. 1883 Krakatau eruption 36,000 fatalities. 2004 1843 1861 1833
    29. 29. Tsunami travel time (hours; simulation) NOAA
    30. 30. Animation of Dec 26,2004 tsunami NOAA
    31. 31. Largest earthquakes, 1900 - 2004 Sumatra 12/26/04 is 4th largest; Sumatra 3/28/05 is 7th. 9 of the 13 largest earthquakes since 1900 around the perimeter of the Pacific Ocean.
    32. 32. Pacific tsunami travel times Travel times are predictable and provide time for warnings, except near the earthquake. Amplitudes are not predictable but are now measurable by Pacific tsunami warning system. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 33
    33. 33. Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) Pacific Tsunami Warning System 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 34
    34. 34. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 35
    35. 35. Great Cascadia earthquake of 1700 AD Drowned Sitka spruce at Young’s Bay near Astoria. 12/9/2013 1700 AD tsunami sand. PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 36
    36. 36. Compare Sumatra EQ to Cascadia Subduction Zone A great earthquake on the Cascadia Subduction Zone would be frighteningly similar to the Sumatra earthquake! Resulting tsunami would also be comparable!
    37. 37. See notes below for “Killer Wave” Video of Cascadia - Puget Sound tsunami evidence. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 38
    38. 38. Cascadia tsunami animation. 12/9/2013 Time between earthquake and tsunami along Pacific NW coast? PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 39
    39. 39. Seaside Tsunami Evacuation Plan Note the scale. Difficulties: Bays Rivers Bridges Public education required is VERY challenging. Let’s develop evacuation plans from three perspectives: Mayor; Police Chief; Hotel owner. Include a quantitative analysis in your plan.
    40. 40. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 41
    41. 41. STORM SURGE Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling Now this is the storm surge compilation of the storm surge events happen in earth long time and current time and how to avoid storm surge.
    42. 42. Objectives • Define the characteristics of a hurricane and the hazards associated with a hurricane storm surge. • Explain the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale • Clarify the uses, capabilities, limitations and outputs of the SLOSH Storm Surge Modeling Program 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 43
    43. 43. A Hurricane • Is a tropical cyclone • Originates over warm tropical waters • Has sustained winds of at least 74 mph (64 knots) or greater for a duration of six to eight hours. • Occurs in the Northern Hemisphere 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 44
    44. 44. Major U.S. Landfalling Hurricanes 1899 - 2000 • Areas in the U. S. vulnerable to hurricanes include the Atlantic and Gulf coasts from Texas to Maine, the territories in the Caribbean, and tropical areas of the western Pacific, including Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, and Saipan. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 45
    45. 45. Factors Impacting Storm Surge • Meteorological Parameters – – – – – 12/9/2013 • Physical characteristics of the basin Intensity of storm Atmospheric pressure Tract of storm Forward speed Radius of maximum winds – – – – Slope of coast Roughness of coast Coastline Natural or man made barriers PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 46
    46. 46. Meteorological Parameters • The intensity of the hurricane is measured by the central barometric pressure and maximum surface winds at the center of the storm. • Storm surge begins to build while the hurricane is still far out at sea over deep water. • The low pressure near the center of the storm causes the water to rise. • The storm size or radius of maximum winds can vary from as little as 4 miles to over 50. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 47
    47. 47. Characteristics of the Basin • A shallow slope off the coast shown in the Figure below will allow a greater surge to inundate coastal communities. • As the water depth decreases closer to the shore, the excess water is not able to dissipate. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 48
    48. 48. Hurricane Uncertainty • Uncertainty about how intense the storm will be when it makes landfall • Uncertainty associated with the hurricane storm tract. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 49
    49. 49. Saffir-Simpson Damage Potential Scale Category 1 Winds 74-95 mph Surge 1.2-1.6 meters Category 2 Winds 96-110 mph Surge 1.7-2.5 meters Category 3 Winds 111-130 mph Surge 2.6-3.8 meters Category 4 Winds 131-155 mph Surge 3.9-5.5 meters Category 5 Winds > than 155 mph Surge > 5.5 meters 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 50
    50. 50. SLOSH (Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes) • One of the sophisticated mathematical models used by NHC to calculate potential surge heights from hurricanes; • Used by NHC for determining storm surge warnings and hurricane evacuation • Used by NHC all over the eastern seaboard of the U.S • Represents a tropical cyclone and its environment and forecasts the future motion and intensity of a cyclone. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 51
    51. 51. SLOSH Model • Simulates inland flooding from storm surge • The model permits the overtopping of barriers and flow through barrier gaps. • The results from a SLOSH flooding and hazards analysis can help estimate the extent and timing of an evacuation (Allenstein 1985). • SLOSH is not a prediction model rather, SLOSH requires that specific hurricane boundary conditions be externally provided to the model (Allenstein 1985). 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 52
    52. 52. SLOSH helps in Decision-making • What is the nature of the approaching natural threat? • Who is at risk and to what extent? • Where should these people go for safety? • How much time is there to evacuate? 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 53
    53. 53. SLOSH Model Requirements • A hurricane track, • Central sea level pressure, and • Radius of maximum wind into a distribution of sea surface wind stress and pressure forces. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 54
    54. 54. NHC Models • Statistical Models: forecast the future by using current information about the hurricane and comparing it to historical knowledge about the behavior of similar tropical cyclones • Dynamical Models: use the results of global atmospheric model forecasts, taking current wind, temperature, pressure and humidity observations to make forecasts of the actual atmosphere in which the cyclone exists. • Combination Models: incorporate numerically forecast data into a statistical prediction framework 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 55
    55. 55. Uses of SLOSH • Real time forecasting of surges from actual hurricanes within selected Gulf and Atlantic coastal basins – Furnishes surge heights for open coast, – Computes the routing of storm surge into bays, estuaries, or coastal river basins as well as calculating surge heights for over land locations • Evacuation planning – Flood areas are determined by combining peak model surge values using input parameters from 200 to 300 hypothetical hurricanes – SLOSH is able to estimate the overland tidal surge heights and winds that result from hypothetical hurricanes – Model tidal surge outputs are applied to a specific locale's shoreline • SLOSH model is also designed for use in an operational mode 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 56
    56. 56. Use of SLOSH with Hurricane Evacuation Study • If a local jurisdiction has a Hurricane Evacuation Study (which combines SLOSH model results with traffic flow information), the jurisdiction does not need information about storm surge heights in a real hurricane situation. • Local officials only need to know the forecast of the storm's intensity (Cat 1 etc.) at landfall and the tide at that time to be able to make an appropriate evacuation decision. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 57
    57. 57. SLOSH Data Requirements • Storm positions • The lowest atmospheric sea level pressure in the eye of the hurricane • The storm size measured from the center to the region of maximum winds • Initial height of the water surface – Tidal fluctuations (low or high tide) immediately prior to landfall have not been accounted for in SLOSH • Characteristics of the basin 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 58
    58. 58. SLOHS Outputs • A grid representing a natural basin or large geographical area – Surface envelope of the highest surges for each cell in the grid – Time histories of surges at selected grid points – Computes wind speeds at selected grid points; – determines wind directions at selected grid points 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 59
    59. 59. • Graphical output from the SLOSH model displays colorcoded storm surge heights for a particular area in feet. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 60
    60. 60. Potential Peak Surges for a Regional Hurricane Study • The highest surge is called the maximum envelope of water (MEOW). – These peak surges or the highest surge (for each of the modeled storms in a study) reached at all locations within an area are included in the MEOW. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 61
    61. 61. Limitations of the MEOW • The MEOW does not predict the limits of inundation from a single storm • Delineates the areas that are threatened by storm surge from all hurricane scenarios modeled in the study. • The multiple storms included in a MEOW do not necessarily occur at the same time. • The maximum surge for one location may differ by several hours from another location. • The MEOW does not represent a ―snapshot‖ of the storm surge at a given instant of time. • It represents the highest water level at each grid cell during a hurricane irrespective of the actual time of occurrence. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 62
    62. 62. SLOSH Model Accuracy • The SLOSH model is generally accurate within plus or minus 20 percent. – For example, if the model calculates a peak 10 foot storm surge for the event, you can expect the observed peak to range from 8 to 12 feet. • To account for inaccuracies in forecasting the behavior of approaching hurricanes, the National Hurricane Center recommends that public officials faced with an eminent evacuation prepare for the evacuation as if the approaching hurricane will intensify one category above the strength forecast for landfall (Mercado 1994). 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 63
    63. 63. Model Limitations and Use • SLOSH accounts for astronomical tides • SLOSH does not account for rainfall amounts, riverflow, or wind-driven waves. This information is however, combined with the model results in the final analysis of at-risk-areas. • The point of a hurricane's landfall is crucial to determining which areas will be inundated by the storm surge. Where the hurricane forecast track is inaccurate, SLOSH model results will be inaccurate. • The SLOSH model, therefore, is best used for defining the potential maximum surge for a location. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 64
    64. 64. Slosh Calibration and Verification • Verification is performed in a ―hind-cast‖ mode, using the real-time operational model code and storm parameters and an initial observed sea surface height. • The computed surge heights are compared with those measured from historical storms. • The computed surge heights are compared with those measured from historic storms. • Adjustments are not made to force agreement between computed and measured surge heights from historical storms. • When necessary, further analysis and subjective decisions are employed to amend the track or other parameters of the historic storms used in the verification process. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 65
    65. 65. Calibration and Verification (continued) • Ideally there would be a large number of actual storm events with well documented meteorology and storm surge histories. • Hurricanes are rare for any given region. • It is even rarer to find adequate, reliable measurement of storm surge elevations. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 66
    66. 66. Radius of LANDFALL Maximum Winds 9 nm Secondary Wind Maximum 52 nm SOLOSH Modeling Verification: Hurricane Lili September 4, 2002, Brian Jarvinen, National Weather Service, Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference March 1-5, 2000 Charleston, SC 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 67
    67. 67. SLOSH STORM TIDE PROFILE 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge TIDE GAGE HIGH WATER MARK 68 DAUPHIN ISLAND BILOXI GULFPORT WAVELAND RIGOLETES GRAND ISLE INDUSTRIAL CANAL BAYOU BIENVENUE BAYOU DUPRE GOLDEN MEADOW COCODRIE ATCHAFALAYA BAY WAX LAKE OUTLET BURNS POINT CYPREMORT PT. INTRA COASTAL CITY PECAN ISLAND
    68. 68. SLOSH Model Verification Conclusions • The values or functions for the coefficients within the SLOSH model are generalized to serve for modeling all storms within all basins and are set empirically through comparisons of computed and observed meteorological and surge height data from numerous historical hurricanes. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 69
    69. 69. Possible Sources of Error in SLOSH Noise in surge observations often exceeding = or – 20%. The bathymetry given to SLOSH is not accurate. The topography given to SLOSH is not accurate. Errors in the initial water height. Wind wave effects, astronomical tidal effects, storm rainfall, and riverine flooding. • Noise in observed meteorological parameters or the storm track which is a source of error. • • • • • Mercado (1994). On the use of NOAA's storm surge model, SLOSH, in managing coastal hazards - the experience in Puerto Rico. Natural Hazards. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 70
    70. 70. CHAPTER 3 Similarities and difference between Tsunami and Storm Surge 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 71
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    84. 84. Conclusion Now, to sum up my presentation the main points of my presentation is about Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge. The difference between Tsunami and Storm Surge is big because Tsunami is very destructive wave of water that afffects big cities and/or in some case it affects some country and tsunami is very big wave of water it can destroy Houses, buildings, parks etc. while storm surge is also a wave of water but storm surge is only affect short distance and height but it can destroy houses near Seas and/or Lake. But don’t worry because this abnormal wave of water is not happens fast for example a tsunami is not easy to create is only created by earhtquakes in water, volcanic eruption or sometimes if theres a meteor trike in water. For Storm Surge it only happens if a storm is in the Water. Storm Surge is created by storm because the wind pulls the water and creates big waves of water. In conclusion, my recommendations are : your mind should be active in calamities you have to be ready if theres any calamities written in this conlusion. Many thanks for your attention. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 85
    85. 85. REFERENCE • • • • • • • • • • • Anthes, Richard A. (1982). "Tropical Cyclones; Their Evolution, Structure and Effects, Meteorological Monographs". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (Ephrata, PA) 19 (41): 208. Cotton, W.R. (1990). Storms. Fort Collins, Colorado: *ASTeR Press. p. 158. ISBN 0-9625986-0-7. Dunn, Gordon E.; Banner I. Miller (1964). Atlantic Hurricanes. Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. p. 377. Finkl, C.W. Jnr. (1994). "Disaster Mitigation in the South Atlantic Coastal Zone (SACZ): A Prodrome for Mapping Hazards and Coastal Land Systems Using the Example of Urban subtropical Southeastern Florida. In: Finkl, C.W., Jnr. (ed.), Coastal Hazards: Perception, Susceptibility and Mitigation.". Journal of Coastal Research (Charlottesville, Virginia: Coastal Education & Research Foundation) (Special Issue No. 12): 339–366. Gornitz, V.; R.C. Daniels, T.W. White, and K.R. Birdwell (1994). "The development of a coastal risk assessment database: Vulnerability to sea level rise in the U.S. southeast". Journal of Coastal Research(Coastal Education & Research Foundation) (Special Issue No. 12): 327–338. Granthem, K. N. (1953-10-01). "Wave Run-up on Sloping Structures". Transactions of the American Geophysical Union 34 (5): 720–724. Harris, D.L. (1963). "Characteristics of the Hurricane Storm Surge" (PDF). Technical Paper No. 48 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Weather Bureau): 1–139. Hebert, Paul J.; Taylor, Glenn (1983). "The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Hurricanes of This Century (and other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts)" (PDF). NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC 31 (Miami, Florida: National Hurricane Center): 33. Hebert, P.J.; Jerrell, J., Mayfield, M. (1995). "The Deadliest, Costliest, and Most Intense United States Hurricanes of This Century (and other Frequently Requested Hurricane Facts)". NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS NHC 31 (Coral Gables, Fla., In: Tait, Lawrence, (Ed.) Hurricanes...Different Faces In Different Places, (proceedings) 17th Annual National Hurricane Conference, Atlantic City, N.J.): 10–50. Jarvinen, B.R.; Lawrence, M.B. (1985). "An evaluation of the SLOSH storm-surge model". Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 66 (11): 1408–1411. Jelesnianski, Chester P (1972). "SPLASH (Special Program To List Amplitudes of Surges From Hurricanes) I. Landfall Storms". NOAA Technical Memorandum NWS TDL-46 (Silver Spring, Maryland: National Weather Service Systems Development Office): 56. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 86
    86. 86. • • • • • • • • • • • • Jelesnianski, Chester P.; Jye Chen, Wilson A. Shaffer (1992). "SLOSH: Sea, Lake, and Overland Surges from Hurricanes". NOAA Technical Report NWS 48 (Silver Spring, Maryland: National Weather Service): 71. Lane, E.D. (1981). Environmental Geology Series, West Palm Beach Sheet; Map Series 101. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology. p. 1. Murty, T.S.; Flather, R.A. (1994). "Impact of Storm Surges in the Bay of Bengal. In: Finkl, C.W., Jnr. (ed.), Coastal Hazards: Perception, Susceptibility and Mitigation". Journal of Coastal Research (Special Issue No. 12): 149– 161. National Hurricane Center; Florida Department of Community Affairs, Division of Emergency Management (1995). Lake Okeechobee Storm Surge Atlas for 17.5' & 21.5' Lake Elevations. Ft. Myers, Florida: Southwest Florida Regional Planning Council. Newman, C.J.; BR Jarvinen, CJ McAdie, JD Elms (1993). Tropical Cyclones of the North Atlantic Ocean, 18711992. Asheville, North Carolina and National Hurricane Center, Coral Gables, Florida: National Climatic Data Center in cooperation with the National Hurricane Center. p. 193. Sheets, Dr. Robert C. (1995). Stormy Weather, In: Tait, Lawrence, (Ed.) Hurricanes... Different Faces In Different Places, (Proceedings) 17th Annual National Hurricane Conference. Atlantic City, N.J. pp. 52–62. Siddiqui, Zubair A. (April 2009). "Storm surge forecasting for the Arabian Sea" (PDF). Marine Geodesy (Great Britain: Taylor & Francis) 32 (2): 19. Simpson, R.H.; Arnold L. Sugg and Staff (1970-04-01). "The Atlantic Hurricane Season of 1969" (PDF). Monthly Weather Review (Boston, Massachusetts: American Meteorological Society) 98 (4). Retrieved 2008-0811. Summary page for article Simpson, R.H. (1971). A Proposed Scale for Ranking Hurricanes by Intensity (Speech). Miami, Florida. Tannehill, I.R. (1956). Hurricanes. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. p. 308. United States National Weather Service (1993). Hurricane!: A Familiarization Booklet. NOAA PA 91001: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service. p. 36. Will, Lawrence E. (1978). Okeechobee Hurricane; Killer Storms in the Everglades. Belle Glade, Florida: Glades Historical Society. p. 204. 12/9/2013 PPT - Tsunami Vs. Storm Surge 87

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