Artists sometimes interchange the term Scale & Proportion. However, they are not the exactly the same, but similar enough.Their similarity is that they are both concerned with size or amount of an element or object.Scale is the relationship of an object to another object while, Proportion refers to the relationship of one part of an object to another part of the same object.Look at the picture where a ladybug is somewhat going to that object. Good Scaling achieved when the ladybug is smaller than the other object to show how small it really is.Another picture that shows good scaling & proportion is that painting of somewhat like tsunami effect of the sea waves. Good Scaling achieved by the size of the wave, boat & the mountain that creates an illusion that a sea wave is way higher & larger than that mountain. But if you will look closely, you will find out that that mountain is very far from the wooden boat. Good Proportion achieved by the amount of colour of that sea wave. At its top layer has a lighter colour than that at the bottom or in the surface of water which has a darker one.
As a recap here’s a video about scale & proportion.
First type of rhythm is a Linear Rhythm, where simplycomposed of lines that are horizontal, vertical, slant or even irregular one.With those lines it creates a movement and pattern. Take a look at the wavy one!
Next would be, Rhythm by repetition, from its root word “repeat” it repeats a single figure identically to create a pattern.
Another way of showing rhythmwould be by Alternation. Somewhat like Rhythm by Repetition where it also creates a pattern but not identically, thus by alternately.A single object may have the same structure but have different colour or the same colour but different orientation.Or you could do your own pattern. As long as the repetition of a single figure is not identical from the previous one.
Lastly, Rhythm by Gradation, Gradation is a series forming successive stages. It is achieved by the series of elements patterned to relate to one another. Take a look at the picture beside another one at lower right-hand portion of the slide having neutral colours. As you can see from the upper part of the picture, a single figure identical to the other in the same column undergone a series of change as it moves from top to bottom which that process of change showed Rhythm by Gradation.Rhythm by Gradation is just simply the combination of all types of rhythm that shows a single pattern. It could be linear, by repetition, by alternation or it could be anything.
As a recap here’s another video for Rhythm!
Emphasis could be achieved by contrast, contrast of size, colour, texture, etc.It easily catches our attention for its obvious distinction from other element.The focal point of that pictures are the green apple, the red figure of a man raising his hand, the tangerine sphere and the black circle.
Next is by Isolation.If most of the elements in a work of art are grouped closely together, an object by itself stands out as a focal point.From the given pictures, the focal point is the moth which flies diagonally, the isolated unknown specie of bird at the lower line, the oriental circular thing at the lower right-hand portion of the picture, and a single cat acting as the leader of the pride.
The last video, as a recap for Emphasis!
HUM 1B Chapter 5: Organization in the Visual Arts part 2
“Organization in the
oIt is the relationship of two or
more elements in a design and
how they compare with one
oIt refers to the relative size and
scale of the various elements in
SCALE AND PROPORTION IN ART ARE BOTH CONCERNED WITH SIZE.
SCALE REFERS TO THE SIZE OF AN OBJECT (A WHOLE) IN RELATIONSHIP TO ANOTHER OBJECT
(ANOTHER WHOLE). IN ART THE SIZE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AN OBJECT AND THE HUMAN
BODY IS SIGNIFICANT. IN EXPERIENCING THE SCALE OF AN ARTWORK WE TEND TO COMPARE
ITS SIZE TO THE SIZE OF OUR OWN BODIES.
PROPORTION REFERS TO THE RELATIVE SIZE OF PARTS OF A WHOLE (ELEMENTS WITHIN AN
OBJECT). WE OFTEN THINK OF PROPORTIONS IN TERMS OF SIZE RELATIONSHIPS WITHIN THE
oA series of units repeated one after
oAchieved by the regular or
harmonious recurrence of
lines, forms, and colours
oIt can create a sense of
movement, and can establish pattern
It refers to the
flow of the
It involves the use of
identical patterning to
achieve timed movement
and a visual "beat". This
repetition may be a clear
repetition of elements in a
composition, or it may be a
more subtle kind of
repetition that can be
observed in the underlying
structure of the image.
REPETITION- the act or an
instance of repeating or
It is a specific instance
of patterning in which
a sequence of
repeating motifs are
presented in turn of
ALTERNATION- the act or
process of alternating or
causing to alternate
It employs a series of
motifs patterned to relate
to one another through a
regular progression of
steps. This may be a
gradation of shape or
This is also known as
GRADATION- a series
forming successive stages
o Produced by the design or form that
catches our attention while the rest are
o It is a way of making the element that is
most important stand out in the
o It marks the locations in a composition
which most strongly draw the viewers
emphasis by setting the
point of emphasis apart
from the rest of its
kinds of contrasts are
possible. The use of a
the point of emphasis.
colour, texture, or shape
will call attention to a
Contrast of size or scale
will as well.
If most of the
elements in a work
of art are grouped
together, an object
by itself stands out
as a focal point.
Isolating an object
in a work of art
also creates a