Organizational Structure and roles


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Organizational Structure and roles

  1. 1. Organisational Structures & Roles Presented By : Vijayalaxmi Panchal(33) Mandar Pandeshwar(34) Jayesh Parab(35) Vishal Pasi(36)
  2. 2. Organisational Structure <ul><li>Structure is the establishment pattern of relationship among the components or parts of an organisation. </li></ul><ul><li>- F. Kast & S. Rosenweig </li></ul><ul><li>A framework through which the organisation operates </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern of relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Duties and Positions </li></ul><ul><li>Existence for purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Two Dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal (Departments) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical (Hierarchy of authority) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional and Modern Structures </li></ul>
  3. 3. Traditional Organisational Structures
  4. 4. Line Organisation Structure <ul><li>Simplest and the oldest form of structure </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as scalar organisation or military type organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Direct lines of authority </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick decision making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better co-ordination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autocratic leadership style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overdependence & pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on executives </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Functional Organisation Structure <ul><li>Introduced by F. W. Taylor in 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Number of functions managed by functional experts </li></ul><ul><li>Functional expert has authority over not only his subordiantes but also over subordinates in other functional areas </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good quality of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced pressure on executives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided control </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Line and Staff Structure <ul><li>Combines the activities of line executives and that of staff </li></ul><ul><li>Line executives are the doers & the specialist are the thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratic Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic planning and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflicts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High dependence on staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Modern Organisational Structures
  8. 8. Project Structure <ul><li>Project refers to a group of activities which are to be completed within a definite time period and at specified costs </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Project manager co-ordinates the activities of the project staff </li></ul><ul><li>Project staff is independent of functional departments </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages creativity and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suitable for complex projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires specialized staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No authority over financial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resources </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Matrix Structure <ul><li>Developed in the US in early 1960’s to solve management problems emerging in aerospace industry </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix in mathematics means any rectangular array of elements arranged in rows and columns </li></ul><ul><li>Project managers work in close co-operation with functional heads </li></ul><ul><li>Matrix members have dual assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound decision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Complex Nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Unity of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Free Form Structure <ul><li>Also known as boundaryless structure </li></ul><ul><li>Roles, authority and relationships are not clearly defined </li></ul><ul><li>Members of organisation jointly exercise authority and are jointly responsible </li></ul><ul><li>Suitable for highly sophisticated activities </li></ul>
  11. 11. Virtual Organisation <ul><li>Also known as network or modular organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Small, core organisation that outsources major business functions </li></ul><ul><li>Highly centralised </li></ul>
  12. 12. Organisational Roles <ul><li>It refers to a set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit </li></ul><ul><li>Shakespeare said “All the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players.” </li></ul><ul><li>One of the important tasks in understanding behaviour is grasping the role that a person is currently playing </li></ul>
  13. 13. Organisational Roles <ul><li>Role Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes & Actual Behaviours consistent with a role create role identity. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Perception </li></ul><ul><li>One’s view as to how one is supposed to act in given situation is a role perception. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Organisational Roles <ul><li>Role Expectation </li></ul><ul><li>How others believe you should act in a given situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Role Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>When an individual meets with different role expectations the result is role conflict. </li></ul>
  15. 15. References <ul><li>Organisation and Management – Michael Vaz </li></ul><ul><li>Organisational Behaviour – Stephen Robbins </li></ul>