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Macromolecules carbohydrates


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Macromolecules carbohydrates

  1. 1. Macromolecules Macromolecules are polymers constructed by the formation of covalent bonds between smaller molecules called monomers.
  2. 2. Composition of Body
  3. 3. Building blocks
  4. 4. Condensation Reaction <ul><li>Monomers are joined by condensation reactions, which release a molecule of water for each bond formed. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Hydrolysis <ul><li>Hydrolysis reactions use water to break polymers into monomers. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Carbohydrates The basic structure of all carbohydrates is the same. They are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  7. 7. Types of carbohydrates <ul><li>There are three main groups of carbohydrates, depending on the complexity of the molecules. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>monosaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disaccharides and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polysaccharides </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Monosaccharides <ul><li>General formula for monosaccharides is (CH 2 O) n </li></ul>
  9. 9. Triose Sugars <ul><li>Triose sugars have three carbon atoms and the formula C 3 H 6 O 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>They are important in mitochondria where glucose is broken down into three carbon sugars during cellular respiration. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Glyceraldehyde
  11. 11. Pentose Sugars <ul><li>Pentose sugars have 5 carbon atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Ribose and deoxyribose sugars in nucleic acids are examples. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hexoses <ul><li>Hexoses are monosaccharides that contain six carbon atoms. Examples of hexoses include glucose, galactose, and fructose, which can exist as chains or rings. </li></ul>
  13. 13.  - Glucose
  14. 14.  - Glucose
  15. 15. Fructose
  16. 16. Disaccharides <ul><li>Disaccharides are made up of two monosaccharides joined together. </li></ul><ul><li>Two monosaccharides join in a condensation reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The link between two monosaccharides results in a covalent bond known as glycosidic bond. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Glycosidic linkage
  18. 18. Disaccharides <ul><li>Maltose = Glucose + Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>(Found in germinating seeds such as barley) </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose </li></ul><ul><li>(Stored in plants such as sugar cane) </li></ul><ul><li>Lactose = Glucose + Galactose </li></ul><ul><li>(Carbohydrate found in milk) </li></ul>