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Lifestyle factors in cv ds


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Lifestyle factors in cv ds

  1. 1. Lifestyle Factors in CVDs
  2. 2. Lifestyle Factors <ul><li>Your lifestyle can affect your risk of getting a CVD in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking, stress, diet and weight, lack of activity and high blood pressure are related with CVD. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Smoking and CVDs. <ul><li>Smokers are more likely to develop CVDs than non-smokers with a similar lifestyle. </li></ul><ul><li>Nine out of ten people needing heart bypass surgery are smokers according to a study. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Smoking <ul><li>Studies found that some of the chemicals found in tobacco smoke can damage the lining of the arteries, making the build-up of plaque more likely. </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking can also causes the arteries to narrow, raising the blood pressure and increasing the risk of CVDs. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Weight and CVDs <ul><li>Being overweight puts a greater strain on the heart because the heart has to work harder to move the blood through all the extra tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>Being overweight also increases the likelihood that the person will suffer from high pressure, which increases the risk of CVDs. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Weight and CVDs <ul><li>The most common measure for obesity is the BMI. </li></ul><ul><li>However new research shows that BMI is a poor predictor of CVD risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Waist-to-hip gives a better indication of health. </li></ul><ul><li>a waist-to-hip ratio of over 0.8 in women or over 1.0 in men seems to indicate that an increased risk of heart disease. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Exercise and CVDs.
  8. 9. Exercise and CVDs. <ul><li>Regular exercise can slow the heart rate, lower blood pressure, lower blood cholesterol levels and balance the lipoproteins in blood. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these lower the risk of CVDs. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Exercise and CVDs. <ul><li>A study on 10269 male Harvard graduates aged between 45 and 84 showed that the men who increased their levels of physical activity had a 23% lower mortality after 20 years than their colleagues who did not exercise and the main cause of the deaths was CVDs. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Exercise and CVDs. <ul><li>Another study on 9777 men aged 20-82 showed that men classed as unfit on a treadmill test at their first examination, who were fit on their second examination almost five years later, had a 52% lower risk of dying of CVDs than men who remained unfit. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Exercise and CVDs. <ul><li>A study on 72488 female nurses showed the same benefits for women - the more active women had a significantly lower risk of CVDs. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Stress and CVD <ul><li>High stress levels increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases by causing prolonged high blood pressure and a faster heart rate. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Diet and CVD <ul><li>A study shows that in countries where people eat a lot of fatty meat and diary foods (mostly saturated fats), many people die of heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>This suggests that high levels of saturated fats in the diet may be a risk factor. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Diet and CVD - Correlation <ul><li>The link between a diet high in saturated fats and a raised incidence of CVDs shows a correlation. </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>The relationship between blood cholesterol levels and death from coronary heart disease in men in the UK. The bars show the frequency with which the different cholesterol concentrations are found, while the line graph shows the number of heart attacks per 1000 men each year. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Correlation <ul><li>A factor that appears to be linked to a change or event. </li></ul><ul><li>eg: both increase or decrease at the same time. </li></ul>
  17. 19. Diet and CVD - Causation <ul><li>In many studies scientists discovered that a high intake of saturated fats was often associated with high blood cholesterol levels. </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol is involved in plaque formation in atherosclerosis. </li></ul><ul><li>This suggested a cause for the link between a high fat diet and CVDs. </li></ul>
  18. 20. <ul><li>The graph shows a clear link between the LDL/HDL ratio and deaths from coronary heart disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The balance of LDL and HDL in the blood is now recognised as a clear indication of the risk of developing CVDs. </li></ul>LDL/HDL Ratio
  19. 21. Epidemiology <ul><li>Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Link between factors <ul><li>Epidemiological studies are starting to show increased risks due to a combination of factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence now suggests that smoking not only increases the risk of CVDs but also increases the impact of raised LDL/HDL ratios on the cardiovascular system. </li></ul>
  21. 23. Link between factors Smoking & Diet
  22. 24. How can we stay healthy? <ul><li>Eating foods containing more unsaturated fats, and those that give a higher ratio of HDLs to LDLs, reduces the risk of CVDs later in life. </li></ul><ul><li>Not smoking, reducing constant stress and getting plenty of exercise are also likely to help. </li></ul>