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Cvd treatment


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Cvd treatment

  1. 1. CVD - Treatment
  2. 2. Treatment <ul><li>A number of treatment options are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing lifestyle such as improving diet, giving up smoking and taking more exercise can help. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various drugs that can be given to treat CVDs. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Controlling blood pressure <ul><li>Drugs that reduce blood pressure are known as antihypertensives. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Diuretics <ul><li>These drugs increase the volume of urine produced. </li></ul><ul><li>This get rid of excess fluids and salts and blood volume falls leading to reduced pressure. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Beta blockers <ul><li>Reduce the heart rate and contractions less strong and thus reduces blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>These drugs blocks the response of the heart to adrenaline. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sympathetic Nerve Inhibitors <ul><li>Sympathetic nerves stimulate the arteries to constrict and thus rise the blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathetic inhibitor drugs can prevent this happening. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Risk of Drug Therapy <ul><li>If the treatment is not monitored carefully, the blood pressure may become too low. </li></ul><ul><li>That can lead to falls and injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>There could be side effects to many of these drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Common side effects include coughs, swelling of ankles, impotence, tiredness, fatigue and constipation. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Risk of Drug Therapy <ul><li>High BP may not make you feel ill. </li></ul><ul><li>But the medication to control BP can affect the quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>This cause discontinuation of medicine by many patients without consulting it with the doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>The side effects of the medication make them ignore the much larger but invisible risk of CVDs. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Statins <ul><li>Statins are groups of drugs that lower the level of cholesterol in your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>They block the enzyme in the liver that is responsible for making cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>Statins are particularly effective at the blockage of the production of LDLs. Thus the LDLs to HDLs ratio improves in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>This drug reduces inflammation in the lining of the arteries. </li></ul><ul><li>These reduce the risk of atherosclerosis developing. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Statin – Side Effects <ul><li>Most people use statins with little or no ill effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Side effects of muscle and joint aches and nausea, constipation and diarrhoea are sometimes reported. </li></ul><ul><li>For example the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reported 3339 cases of muscle reactions between January 1990 and March 2002, during which time millions of Americans took statins daily. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Plant Stanols and Sterols <ul><li>Plant stanols and sterols are very similar in structure to cholesterol. </li></ul><ul><li>They reduce the amount of cholesterol absorbed from the gut into the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>This reduces the cholesterol content in the body. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Anticoagulants <ul><li>Following heart surgery, or after suffering from thrombosis, drug treatments are used to prevent blood clotting too easily. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Anticoagulants <ul><li>Warfarin is an anticoagulant that interferes with the manufacture of prothrombin in the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Low prothrombin levels make the blood clot less easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Warfarin has been used in rat poison in high doses. </li></ul><ul><li>Rats bleed to death after the slightest knock as the blood will not clot. </li></ul><ul><li>In humans carefully monitored does of Warfarin is used as a medicine. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Platelets Inhibitory Drugs <ul><li>Platelets inhibitory drugs make the platelets less sticky, and reduce the clotting ability of the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>The cheapest and most common of these is aspirin. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Aspirin - Risk <ul><li>Aspirin irritates the stomach lining and causes bleeding in the stomach which can become serious. </li></ul><ul><li>One study shows that for every 1000 patients at high risk of CVDs treated for 28 months, 5 cardiovascular events would be avoided - but 3 major stomach bleeds would be caused. </li></ul>