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Friendly lcttcrs can be divided into the following sections: 

I Greeting

I Paiagrztph I:  Introduction

I Paragraph 2: T...
‘: *§' "1 tr‘:  rm . 
ti. :»*'1 veem. 
Be sure that you know the ways of starting a letter to different people. 

v To a f...
* Remember
Keep the name short and
simple.  Groups of
consonants,  such as kh,  gh, 
half,  hm,  are dihticult for

Englis...
Although most people now write their letters on computers,  remember that

the type of letter you will be writing in the e...
Introduction

Most typcs ofhundly letter should have :1 short introduction.  As this type of
introduction is only used for...
at Remember‘

One oi the main aims at the
exam is to test your aware-
ness ot clitlerent registers and
your ability to han...
What is the purpose of the introduction? 

The introduction woms the reader up and pt'epares tor the main part of the
lett...
Look at this example ot'a letter trntlraur an introduction: 

Dear Uncle Omar, 
I'm writing because I want to come and sta...
The introduction also estahlislres the relationship between the writer (you)
and the audience (the person you are writing ...
it 

,  e T
) T , , I T >1
|  I, » ' 3 u. ' y,  W
I .  s.  V
,  _ I  '.  , " . 
r .  r,  '
. . t a ‘ l , 
r vi a ,  ,
l t ...
There are several set,  or tied,  wars olwriting an imroduction. 

   

1 Using an apology
2 Not using an apology
3 Person...
a) Apologising when there is :1 genuine reason why the writer has not written

Apology Reason

  ye 
I'm sorry i ‘max/ en'...
I The actual reason for not writing can change. 

moving. 

settling into my new house. 
rehearsing for the school play. 
...
w W

Notice the use at the contracted tor short) town at the verb in the introductory sentence ltm, 

haven't,  I've).  Do...
b) Apologising when there is no real excuse for not writing

We been meaning to write for ages,  but i’m afraid i just hav...
Other introductions to friendly letters do not involve an apology. 

get your letter
hear from you

yesteitloy. 

lovely
t...
air language Point

U Notice the use ol the word get.  This is the lriendly register equivolent ol receive, 
which would b...
3 An introduction to an informal letter can also begin with something very
personal,  to show your friendship. 

Congranrt...
Always f<eer: > in m'nd tho’ cm
composition <3? iO0—l 50
vvC, =r‘cz's (COr‘e) or T’ 50-200
words (Extended) *5 not very
lo...
Transition
After writing a suitable introduction,  the next step is to write a transition
sentence.  This will be the first sentence i...
1 A common way to begin the transition is to use the wotcls Anyway,  or

Anyhow,  especially after an apology-type imtoclu...
Look at these examples: 

as Miss Smith has given us loads of maths homework tonight.  Anyway,  I won't
have time to do it...
2 The second way to begin the transition is to use the past tense. 
I _t_lyIgg, ht you _n_righ_t like to know something uh...
3‘:  Lcsngucage Point
. I Notice that the sentence using the past tense sounds more respectful when

compared to the lollo...
Here are some more examples of transition sentences introduced by the
past tense: 

I ; t_n, oL_tgl’_I, t_I__t/ t/o, _url_...
t thgught I would drop you a line to let you know I'm really happy you can

come to stay with us. 

ir Language Point

El ...
3 Other ways to begin the transition include: 

(short) note

lust a quickie

to let you know 

* language Point
:1 Notice...
Exercise I Write the greeting,  introduction and transition ol 0 letter to: 
I o penlriend who is coming to stay with you
...
Signature

When you have finished writing the letter and appropriate ending,  write on a
separate line,  either on the left...
2  format of a friendly letter
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2 format of a friendly letter

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2 format of a friendly letter

  1. 1. Friendly lcttcrs can be divided into the following sections: I Greeting I Paiagrztph I: Introduction I Paragraph 2: Transition and body I Paragraplt 3: Body I Paragraph 4: Conclusion I Ending and signature
  2. 2. ‘: *§' "1 tr‘: rm . ti. :»*'1 veem. Be sure that you know the ways of starting a letter to different people. v To a friend: Dear + first name 1/ To a brother/ sister: Dear + first name Dear Brother Omar A. » K To your mother/ father: Dear Mum/ Dear Dad Dear Mother/ Dear Father on 00 V To your parents: Dear Mum and Dad 2: Dear Parents To a cousin: Dear + first name Dear Cousin Omar K . «a to V To an aunt: Dear Auntie + first name 1/ To an uncle: Dear Uncle + first name In every case, use only the standard Dear. Do not be tempted to write: : : Dearest My Dearest : : My Best Friend
  3. 3. * Remember Keep the name short and simple. Groups of consonants, such as kh, gh, half, hm, are dihticult for English readers, for example Khadifo, Mahmoud.
  4. 4. Although most people now write their letters on computers, remember that the type of letter you will be writing in the exam is hand-written. Paragraphs need to be clearly shown by indenting the first line of each new paragraph so that it lines up under the comma following the name: DEW" OWICH’, It was lovely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . u n n n - n n a - - - - - u I o u o u n u p I A I I n - u s A I I a A t o u A n I a a o - o o u u n u n - - - n o ¢ - u u - u o - v I u a s u u u a n n o o c o u - - - v o u n u - u a o a o - u u - u n o n u - - n I u I I c u ¢ n u o I u o a s V. . . n/ . . , , . v . . - . - . - - - , . . . . . - . . . . . . . - . . . . , . . . r V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . , . . . , , . . . » . . . . . . . , 2
  5. 5. Introduction Most typcs ofhundly letter should have :1 short introduction. As this type of introduction is only used for friendly letters, it distinguishes them front any other ltind oilttttr. it would be quite wrong, for example, to use this type of introduction in at formal letter. More importantly, as soon as the txaniincr reads your introduction she will know whether you are able to show that you tittrlrrstaitd dilitrrnt registers.
  6. 6. at Remember‘ One oi the main aims at the exam is to test your aware- ness ot clitlerent registers and your ability to handle them, so an introcluction written in the appropriate register will be very effective;
  7. 7. What is the purpose of the introduction? The introduction woms the reader up and pt'epares tor the main part of the letter, so the reader knows what to expect and can get in the tight mood.
  8. 8. Look at this example ot'a letter trntlraur an introduction: Dear Uncle Omar, I'm writing because I want to come and stay with you for a month. This sounds very blunt and rude. Even if Uncle Omar agrees to your request, he may consider your language inappropriate (not suitable)! Here is another example: Dear Heha, If you want my advice on how to lose weight, stop eating chocolate. Again, this sounds very cold and definitely an friendly! Although the advice itself may be relevant, the language used to express it sounds uncaring because it is too direct.
  9. 9. The introduction also estahlislres the relationship between the writer (you) and the audience (the person you are writing to). Look at this phrase: tor sorry I ltalran’t writtett this wa? l<, hut The phrase this week tells us how friendly the writer and the reader are, because it implies (and we understand) that they usually write to each other every week — so they must be good liiends.
  10. 10. it , e T ) T , , I T >1 | I, » ' 3 u. ' y, W I . s. V , _ I '. , " . r . r, ' . . t a ‘ l , r vi a , , l t _ "R. . l x ‘V ' I ‘I ' ' '. ’ 1 , -‘q r i. :3 . ‘mill in‘, it 1-’ g . V , H I J o , , nit y ,1; I ’ at ‘ ~ ' , ,. "1 ‘, - r 'r 3 ‘ - A 7} V ' .1 E ‘ r —- :5 e _ . . I T, Irifrr
  11. 11. There are several set, or tied, wars olwriting an imroduction. 1 Using an apology 2 Not using an apology 3 Personal rcfcrcncc
  12. 12. a) Apologising when there is :1 genuine reason why the writer has not written Apology Reason ye I'm sorry i ‘max/ en't written for ages, but we l. “n3L’. tt tfirrsy Sft.4€i}"tt'tej una‘ latex-"e’tt't head the time’. I The construction with for (+ length of tirnc) could change to a long time or to so long. ages I'm sorry .1 has/ em’t written for } so long Ct icmgg tirfivre I The construction with for could be replaced by a construction with since (+ specific time). your birthday t’m sorry i haven't written since the party we last met
  13. 13. I The actual reason for not writing can change. moving. settling into my new house. rehearsing for the school play. getting fit at the gym. t’ve been busy If no reason is given or implied in the question, then ‘studying’ or ‘revising for my exams’ can be used. Suggesting that you are a serious, hardworking student will probably make a good impression on the examiner!
  14. 14. w W Notice the use at the contracted tor short) town at the verb in the introductory sentence ltm, haven't, I've). Do not think that to shorten the verb is poor English. In lact, the short tornr ls most appropriate in lriarclly register — so it must be used in this part at the exam, and only in this part at the exam.
  15. 15. b) Apologising when there is no real excuse for not writing We been meaning to write for ages, but i’m afraid i just haven't got round to it. I've been meaning to write since the puny i'h1 nfiniti i just haven't got but things kept cropping up and round to it. htit what with one thing and another W1 afraid I just haven't had the time.
  16. 16. Other introductions to friendly letters do not involve an apology. get your letter hear from you yesteitloy. lovely to last week. it was y great
  17. 17. air language Point U Notice the use ol the word get. This is the lriendly register equivolent ol receive, which would be too lormol here. 3 Notice the use ol the word hear. This is the correct word to use, even though we use our eyes, not our ears to read o letter. To hearfrom means 'to receive news lrom' ond is used in intormol situations. :1 yesterday/ last week: it is important to soy when something hoppened ot the end ol sentences like this, otherwise the sentence does not sound complete to the English eor.
  18. 18. 3 An introduction to an informal letter can also begin with something very personal, to show your friendship. Congranrtations on passing the exam! you're feeting hetter. thope , . you ve got over the flu. it Language Point . t Notice the phrase to get over is iniormol register ond is used instead oi to recover from, which would not be suitable here.
  19. 19. Always f<eer: > in m'nd tho’ cm composition <3? iO0—l 50 vvC, =r‘cz's (COr‘e) or T’ 50-200 words (Extended) *5 not very long, so every v~/ Ord is ‘mportont and must be cczrel: -.rlly selected. // .c: r.‘= <s will not be given For s? mply Fillirsg the page vvith vvorcls; evety vvord mus‘ be me right one ond in the right plccze--
  20. 20. Transition
  21. 21. After writing a suitable introduction, the next step is to write a transition sentence. This will be the first sentence in the second puagrapli of the letter, and it is needed to linlt the introduction to the main body of the letter. We will now loolr at three dltier'etit ways to begin the transition: 1 Using the words Anyway, or Anyhow, 2 Using the past tense 3 Using other methods
  22. 22. 1 A common way to begin the transition is to use the wotcls Anyway, or Anyhow, especially after an apology-type imtocluction. Remember to put a comma alter these worels. -/ Deursutuh, I'm sorry I haven't written for uges hut I've heen busy Ieheotsing my part for the school play. A_nywuy I thought I would drop you u line to
  23. 23. Look at these examples: as Miss Smith has given us loads of maths homework tonight. Anyway, I won't have time to do it because there's a good film on TV. The meaning of the example above is ‘The fact that I have a lot of maths homework is not important. Watching the film is more important to me. ’ or even ‘I don’t care about my maths homework. What really matters to me is the film on TV. ’ Clearly, this can sometimes give a bad impression. Here is another example: at I was sorry to near you feel lonely and are missing your friends. Anyway, we are all fine and going to play tennis tomorrow. The use ofanyway, gives the following meaning to the sentence: ‘I don’t care if you are lonely. What matters to me is that I have friends and things to look forward to. These are more important than my friendship with you. ’
  24. 24. 2 The second way to begin the transition is to use the past tense. I _t_lyIgg, ht you _n_righ_t like to know something uhuut The English way of showing respect for the person you are writing to, and that you accept that your news, suggestion or advice may not seetn interesting, important, wanted or welcome to the other person, is to use the past tense.
  25. 25. 3‘: Lcsngucage Point . I Notice that the sentence using the past tense sounds more respectful when compared to the lollowing example ol what students olten write in a descriptive letter about home and lamily: : I am going to tell you about my family. 2 I will tell you about my family. .1 Notice the use ol the words will or going to is very strong and lotcelul in English and should be avoided in this situation. ~J Notice that the word tell is not appropriate: a letter is written, not spoken, and the verb tell is generally related to speech.
  26. 26. Here are some more examples of transition sentences introduced by the past tense: I ; t_n, oL_tgl’_I, t_I__t/ t/o, _url_e_l_ drop you a line to let you know something about my family. it Language Point D Notice here the phrase drop you a line can replace write to you in inlormal register.
  27. 27. t thgught I would drop you a line to let you know I'm really happy you can come to stay with us. ir Language Point El Notice how the phrase letyou know replaces the lormal word inform. L1 Notice the word that, which sometimes lollows let you know, has been dropped ham the sentence; this is another feature ol hiendly or informal register.
  28. 28. 3 Other ways to begin the transition include: (short) note lust a quickie to let you know * language Point :1 Notice the use ol the word note in this phrase, even though referring to 0 letter. :3 I'm just writing to you to let you know This is an obvious statement. Who else are you writing to except the reader?
  29. 29. Exercise I Write the greeting, introduction and transition ol 0 letter to: I o penlriend who is coming to stay with you I (1 friend who is going lor on interview I Ct relative who missed 0 lomily celebration.
  30. 30. Signature When you have finished writing the letter and appropriate ending, write on a separate line, either on the left or in the middle of the page, one ofthe following: t_OV€’. , Love , ‘r<>n'r With love t‘ram ‘r"(. ‘i at V5,. Note the use ofcapital letters and which phrases need a comma after them. When you sign at the end ofa friendly letter, do not include your family name. Write your name in your normal hand—writing. It is not a formal signature. at with love from Anna Hutchins V With love from Anna

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