• Leadership plays a central part in
understanding group behavior, for it is the
leader who usually provides the direction
toward goal attainment.
• Therefore, a more accurate predictive
capability should be valuable in improving
Definition of Leadership
• “the ability to influence a group toward the
achievement of goals.”
– The source of this influence may be formal. A person
may assume a leadership role simply because of
– All leaders are managers… but all managers are not
– the ability to influence that arises outside the formal
structure of the organization-Non-sanctioned
– Leaders can emerge from within a group as well as by
formal appointment to lead a group.
• “Leadership is an interpersonal process in
which influence is exercised in a social system
for the achievement of organizational goals
• Two characteristics of leadership.
– First, leadership involves exerting influence over
other members of a group or organization.
– Second, leadership involves helping a group or
organization to achieve its goals
A leader must be INFLUENCER which means
I---------------Integrity with people
F--------------Faith in people
L--------------Listen to people
U------------- Understand People
E-------------Enlarge the people
N------------Navigate the people
C------------Connecting with People
• Leadership styles are the patterns of behavior
which a leader adopts in influencing the
behaviors of his followers.
• The models/theories of leadership styles are:
Leadership as a continuum
Likert’s management system
Path –goal leadership model
(1) POWER ORIENTATION
• Based on the degree of authority which a
leader uses in influencing the behavior of his
• Based on this there are (3) three leadership
– Autocratic leadership
– Participative leadership(democratic)
– Free-rein leadership: giving complete freedom to
subordinates also called Laissez-faire style.
(2) Leadership as a continuum
• Variety of styles of leadership behavior between two
extremes of autocratic and free rein.
(SUBORDINATE CENTERD LEADERSHIP
(BOSS CENTERD LEADERSHIP
Use of authority by manager
Area of freedom for subordinates
ideas & invites
Manager presents tentative
decision subject to change
limits defined by
Manager defines limits, asks
group to make decision
(3) Likert’s management system
• Developed by Resis Likert. Likert has taken
seven variables of different management
– Decision making
– Goal setting
– Control process
Likert system of management
No trust and
trust such as
master has in a
PATH GOAL LEADERSHIP MODEL
• Developed by Robert House.
• It is a combination of situational leadership & Vroom’s expectancy
theory of motivation
• “Charismatic leaders have a combination of
charm and personal magnetism that contribute
to a remarkable ability to get other people to
endorse to their vision and promote it
• Trait of a Charismatic Leader
Strong conviction in that Vision
Out of the ordinary behavior
The image of a change agent
Two Types of Charismatic Leaders
• Visionary Charismatic Leaders
– Through communication ability, the visionary
charismatic leader links followers’ needs and goals
to job or organizational goals.
• Crisis-Based Charismatic Leaders
communicates clearly what actions need to be
taken and what their consequences will be.
"Leadership is doing what is right when no one is watching."
George Van Valkenburg
• Self-leadership is an extensive set of strategies focused on the
behaviors, thoughts, and feelings that you use to exert influence over yourself.
• To lead yourself, create an inspiring vision and set goals for your
life. Visualize a life that is exactly as you want it. When you see your goal in
your mind, you engage the power of your subconscious mind that will help you
build winning habits and bring your dream to life.
• Now, take initiative and start moving towards your goals. Challenge
assumptions, champion change, take risk and experiment. And remember, there
is no failure, only feedback. Ask learning SWOT questions and restart
wiser. Fail small to succeed big.
• Be a lifelong learner, and be passionate about it. If you stop learning, you stop
creating history and become history.
"Leaders don't create followers. They create more leaders."
• Be a super leader – lead by example and help your people
develop into leaders themselves.
• Empower, inspire and energize them. Be a coach for your
• Don't assume you
all team members.
• Ask questions and solicit suggestions. Be empathic and
compassionate, and people will choose you to lead them.
"You don't need all the glory. If you let others take the credit, it makes
them feel like they're part of something special."
• How to get things done when you are not the boss and telling others
what to do is ineffective?
• Lead laterally, help people around you achieve more and shine.
• Invite colleagues to work with you
creatively, and achieve a common goal.
• "Don't try to provide a solution to every problem. They key is to
improve the process of working together. Start the habit of everyone
working to improve collaborative methods. Solutions are not the
answer. The answer is a better process for finding solutions."
"Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want
done because he wants to do it."
• Leading-up is about leading your boss, helping your supervisor to see the
right goal and find the right path before too late.
• Once your boss knows that you bring judgment and get results, the way is
clear for you to lead your boss. But your boss must want it and you must
be able to deliver it.
• Above all, upward leadership requires the conscious subordination of
personal gain to organizational purpose. Leading the boss is therefore
about helping the organization to achieve its mission regardless of the
personal costs or benefits.
• Upward leadership requires a driving urge to make things happen on
high, an unflinching willingness to take charge when not fully in
• "When a subordinate does lead up, it requires equal courage for the boss to
listen down, especially in cultures that traditionally eschew voices from
• A culture that encourages upward leadership is built, not born. For
that, senior managers must regularly insist that their junior staff question
strategy and challenge error.
• Asking those of lesser rank to say what they candidly think and
complimenting them for doing so are small measures that can make for