Teknologi Sel Surya (14)

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Teknologi Sel Surya (14)

  1. 1. TeknologiSel Surya <br />SatwikoSidopekso<br />Sesion#14<br />JurusanFisika<br />FakultasMatematikadanIlmuPengetahuanAlam<br />
  2. 2. Outline <br />Electrical Characteristic:<br />Conductivity<br />Current –Voltage<br />Staeblewronski effect<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />2<br />06/01/2011<br />
  3. 3. Electrical Characteristic<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />3<br />06/01/2011<br />
  4. 4. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Conductivity Measurement<br />Used to Measure and Control the Percent Concentration of Acids, Bases and Salts in Solution<br />Measures Total Concentration<br />Not Ion Specific<br /><ul><li>May be Used to Determine the Dominant Chemical</li></ul>4<br />
  5. 5. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Electrolytes<br />Acids<br /><ul><li>Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydrogen ions, H+
  6. 6. Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) dissociates into H+ + Cl-</li></ul>Bases<br /><ul><li>Substances which ionize in solution and produce hydroxide ions, OH-
  7. 7. Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH, dissociates into Na+ + OH-</li></ul>Salts<br /><ul><li>Substances which ionize in solution and produce neither hydrogen or hydroxide ions
  8. 8. Sodium Chloride, NaCl, dissociates into Na+ + Cl-</li></ul>5<br />
  9. 9. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Typical Conductivity Values<br />6<br />
  10. 10. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Conductivity Measurement<br />Units of Measurement<br /><ul><li>U.S. Units = Micromhos/cm
  11. 11. International Units = MicroSiemens/cm</li></ul> 1.0 S/cm = 1,000 mS/cm = 1,000,000 uS/cm<br /><ul><li>umho/cm = uS/cm</li></ul>Conductivity is the Reciprocal of Resistance<br /><ul><li>1.0 MicroSiemen/cm = 1,000,000 Ohms/-cm
  12. 12. 1,000,000 MicroSiemens/cm = 1.0 Ohm/-cm</li></ul>7<br />
  13. 13. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Conductivity Measurement<br />High Purity Water Applications<br /><ul><li>Power & Semiconductor Manufacturing
  14. 14. Conductivity Measured as Resistivity in MegOhms/cm
  15. 15. Pure Water = 18.18 Meg Ohms/-cm = 0.055 uS/cm</li></ul>Water & Water Treatment Applications <br /><ul><li>Industrial Boilers & Cooling Towers
  16. 16. Conductivity Measured in Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)</li></ul>8<br />
  17. 17. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Conductance of Common Acids, Bases and Salts @ 25oC<br />9<br />
  18. 18. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Conductivity Measurement<br />Each Acid, Base and Salt has Its Own Temperature Vs. Concentration Curve<br />The Temperature Slope Varies for Different Chemicals<br /><ul><li>Acids 1.0% - 1.6% /oC
  19. 19. Natural Waters 2.0%/oC
  20. 20. Bases > 1.8 - 2.2%/oC
  21. 21. High Purity Water 2.3% - 7.3%/ oC</li></ul>10<br />
  22. 22. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Specific Conductivity of Sulfuric Acid<br />11<br />
  23. 23. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />5.0% Sulfuric Acid Solution<br />12<br />
  24. 24. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Change in Temperature Slope/oC<br />13<br />
  25. 25. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Na+<br />Cl-<br />Conductivity Measurement<br />Apply an AC Voltage to Two Electrodes of Exact Dimensions<br />Acids, Bases and Salts (NaCl) Dissolve in Solution and Act as Current Carriers<br />The Current Flow is Directly Proportional to the Total Dissolved Solids in Solution <br />The Physical Dimensions of a Conductivity Electrode are Referred to as the Cell Constant<br />Cell Constant is Length/Area Relationship<br />Distance Between Plates = 1.0 cm<br />Area of Each Plate = 1.0 cm x 1.0 cm<br />Cell Constant = 1.0 cm-1<br />Cell Constant<br />Used to Determine the Measuring Range of the Analyzer<br />Acts as Multiplier<br />Used to Calibrate Analyzer<br />Determined Using NBS Standards<br />Can be NIST Traceable<br />14<br />
  26. 26. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />V<br />Four Electrode Conductivity Cells<br />Measures Current and Voltage Drop<br />Current Increases with an Increase in Voltage Drop Across Electrodes<br />Compensates for Minor Coatings on Conductivity Electrodes<br />Used for Higher Range Measurement<br />15<br />
  27. 27. 06/01/2011<br />Inductive Conductivity<br />Also Known as Toroidal and Electrodless<br />Principle of Measurement<br /><ul><li>Two Sealed Wire Wound Coils Electrically Coupled by Solution Conductivity</li></ul>Advantage<br /><ul><li>No Electrodes Exposed to the Measured Solution
  28. 28. Not Affected by Coating</li></ul>Disadvantage<br /><ul><li>+- 10% Accuracy
  29. 29. High Range Measurement Only > 100 uS/cm</li></ul>16<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />
  30. 30. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Reverse Osmosis Unit<br />pH Transmitter<br />Feed Water<br />Acid Feed<br />Feed<br />Water<br />Tank<br />Conductivity Transmitter<br />RO Unit<br />Waste<br />17<br />
  31. 31. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Demineralizer Unit<br />Acid Regeneration<br />Caustic Regeneration<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />Mixed <br />Bed<br />Anion<br />Bed<br />Cation<br />Bed<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />To Water Storage<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />18<br />
  32. 32. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers for Each Demin Unit<br />TypeNumber<br />Conductivity 4<br />Concentration 2<br />pH 1<br />Total 7<br />Usually 2 per generation unit (make up & polisher) and built in pairs<br />Total X 4 = 28 Analyzers per Unit<br />Two Units Built at a time = 56 Analyzers<br />19<br />
  33. 33. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Power Utilities Average Number of Analyzers Per Generating Unit<br />Analyzer TypeNumber<br />pH 5<br />Specific Conductivity 6<br />Cation Conductivity 11<br />Condensate Analyzer 1<br />Total 23<br />Usually Units Built in Pairs = 46 Analyzers<br />20<br />
  34. 34. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />Heat <br />Exchanger<br />Condensate Return<br />Feed<br /> Water<br />Tank<br />Waste<br />Steam Header<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />Steam<br />Drum<br />Top Blowdown Line<br />Blowdown Valve<br />Mud<br />Drum<br />Flash <br />Tank<br />Manual Blowdown Valve<br />Do Not Automate !<br />Boiler Blowdown and Condensate Return Lines<br />21<br />
  35. 35. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />Clean in Place (CIP)<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />CIP Return Lines<br />Caustic<br />Process<br />Vessels<br />Caustic<br />Dilution<br />Tank<br />Solution<br />Recovery<br />Conductivity<br />Transmitter<br />Water<br />22<br />
  36. 36. 06/01/2011<br />© 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |<br />23<br />TerimaKasih<br />

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