Pertemuan 10 - 11 FISIKA ZAT PADAT Iwan Sugihartono, M.Si Jurusan Fisika Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
ENERGY BANDS AND III-V ALLOYS <ul><li>EP 4E03 – September 19, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>{Streetman Section 3.1, with emphasis...
GOALS <ul><li>Review, in a qualitative manner, the underlying principles of energy bands in solids; </li></ul><ul><li>Disc...
REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (1) In crystalline solids, the atoms are “assembled” in a  periodical  arrangement, in such a way a...
REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (2) The permitted energies that an electron can occupy in the isolated atoms are split into energy ...
REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (3) Mathematically, it means solving the time-independent Schrödinger’s equation: where U(r) is the...
REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (4) The solution to the equation is usually given in the form of a “band diagram” E vs  k . Yu, P.Y...
REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (5) Direct band gap semiconductors (e.g. GaAs, InP, InAs, GaSb) Cohen M.L., Chelikowski, J.R.,  Ele...
REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (6) Indirect band gap semiconductors (e.g. Si, Ge, AlAs, GaP, AlSb) Cohen M.L., Chelikowski, J.R., ...
III-V MATERIALS Binary Compounds <ul><li>Arsenides:  GaAs, AlAs, InAs </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphides:  GaP, AlP, InP </li></...
WHY III-V’S FOR DEVICES? <ul><li>Very low effective mass compared to Si (e.g. m* nl,Si  = 0.98m o , m* n,GaAs  = 0.067m o ...
TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (1) The group III lattice sites are occupied by a fraction  x  of atoms III 1  and a fraction ( 1-x )...
TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (2) The group V lattice sites are occupied by a fraction  y  of atoms V 1  and a fraction ( 1-y ) of ...
TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (4) http://www.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/chap07/F07-06-R.jpg Band Gap Engineeri...
TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (3) http://www.onr.navy.mil/sci_tech/31/312/ncsr/materials/gan.asp Band Gap Engineering: Nitrides 1.2...
Quaternary III-V Alloys (1) Why? Provide even greater flexibility in device design… 02/02/11 ©  2010 Universitas Negeri Ja...
Quaternary III-V Alloys (2) Panish, M.B., Temkin, H.,  Gas source Molecular Beam Epitaxy , Springer, 1993 Wide variety of ...
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Most practical devices consists in heterostructures, i.e. layered thin film structures made of dissi...
LATTICE-MATCHED STRUCTURE By definition,  f = 0 , i.e. both the substrate material and the film material have the same lat...
STRAINED STRUCTURES Ohring, M.,  The Materials Science of Thin Films , Academic Press, 1992 f ≠ 0  (i.e.  a s  ≠ a f ) For...
RELAXED STRUCTURE Beyond a certain critical thickness h c , it is energetically more favourable for the film to “relax”, i...
CRITICAL THICKNESS (1) h c  is obtained by minimizing  E tot  with respect to the strain. This results in a transcendent e...
CRITICAL THICKNESS (2) 02/02/11 ©  2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta  |  www.unj.ac.id  | Mayer, J.W, Lau, S.S.,  Electronic...
THANK YOU 02/02/11 ©  2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta  |  www.unj.ac.id  |
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Fisika Zat Padat (10 - 11) a-energy_bands

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Fisika Zat Padat (10 - 11) a-energy_bands

  1. 1. Pertemuan 10 - 11 FISIKA ZAT PADAT Iwan Sugihartono, M.Si Jurusan Fisika Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam
  2. 2. ENERGY BANDS AND III-V ALLOYS <ul><li>EP 4E03 – September 19, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>{Streetman Section 3.1, with emphasis on 3.1.5} </li></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  3. 3. GOALS <ul><li>Review, in a qualitative manner, the underlying principles of energy bands in solids; </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the importance of III-V materials: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction to various alloys, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Main applications, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design considerations. </li></ul></ul>Note: This presentation does not strictly follow Streetman’s treatment, but instead introduces the topics in a different manner. Moreover, a wider coverage of the important III-V materials is provided. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  4. 4. REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (1) In crystalline solids, the atoms are “assembled” in a periodical arrangement, in such a way as to minimize the energy of the system… Kasap, S.O., Principles of electrical engineering materials and devices , McGraw-Hill, 1997 Example: NaCl crystal (ionic bound) 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | In the solid, the separation between the constituting atoms is comparable to the atomic size, so the properties of the individual atoms are altered by the presence of neighbouring atoms.
  5. 5. REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (2) The permitted energies that an electron can occupy in the isolated atoms are split into energy bands as the atoms get closer to each other. This can also be visualized in terms of an overlap of the electron wave functions (Streetman section 3.1.2). Holden A., The nature of solids , Dover Publications, 1965 Outer shell 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | Since the solid is made of a very large number of atoms (N), these bands are actually constituted by N levels of energies (almost a continuum!). The position of upper and lower extreme of each band is however independent of N (depends only on the materials).
  6. 6. REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (3) Mathematically, it means solving the time-independent Schrödinger’s equation: where U(r) is the periodic effective potential energy that describes the arrangement of atoms in the crystal. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | e.g. a 1-D crystal could for instance be represented in the following manner: a + b a + b a b U o x = 0 Adapted from: R. Eisberg, R. Resnick, Quantum physics of atoms, molecules, solids, nuclei, and particles (2 nd ed.) , Wiley, 1985
  7. 7. REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (4) The solution to the equation is usually given in the form of a “band diagram” E vs k . Yu, P.Y., Cardona, M., Fundamentals of semiconductors , Springer, 2005 e.g. GaAs crystal 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | Cohen M.L., Chelikowski, J.R., Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of semiconductors , Springer, 1989 E g ~ 1.4 eV Actual band diagram For device description a much more simple and practical representation is typically used: E g E c E v
  8. 8. REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (5) Direct band gap semiconductors (e.g. GaAs, InP, InAs, GaSb) Cohen M.L., Chelikowski, J.R., Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of semiconductors , Springer, 1989 E g ~ 1.4 eV The minimum of the conduction band occurs at the same k value as the valence band maximum. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  9. 9. REVIEW OF ENERGY BANDS (6) Indirect band gap semiconductors (e.g. Si, Ge, AlAs, GaP, AlSb) Cohen M.L., Chelikowski, J.R., Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of semiconductors , Springer, 1989 E g ~ 2.3 eV The minimum of the conduction band does not occur at the same k value as the valence band maximum. An electron promoted to the conduction band requires a change of its momentum to make the transition to the valence band (typ. occurs via lattice vibrations). 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  10. 10. III-V MATERIALS Binary Compounds <ul><li>Arsenides: GaAs, AlAs, InAs </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphides: GaP, AlP, InP </li></ul><ul><li>Antimonides: GaSb, AlSb, InSb </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrides: GaN, AlN, InN </li></ul>Tu, K-N, Mayer, J.W, Feldman, L.C., Electronic thin film science for electrical engineers and materials scientists , McMillan, 1992 III V IV 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  11. 11. WHY III-V’S FOR DEVICES? <ul><li>Very low effective mass compared to Si (e.g. m* nl,Si = 0.98m o , m* n,GaAs = 0.067m o , m* n,InSb = 0.014m o ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This translates into very high electron mobilities for high-speed electronic applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A wide variety of these materials have a direct band gap: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photon emission is most efficient during recombination processes, so very suitable for light sources (lasers, LED’s), but also detectors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Possibility to create alloys consisting of the different elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The properties of the device (e.g. emission wavelength of a light source) can be tailored to suit the needs (“band gap engineering”). </li></ul></ul>02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  12. 12. TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (1) The group III lattice sites are occupied by a fraction x of atoms III 1 and a fraction ( 1-x ) of atoms III 2 . Arsenides: e.g. InGaAs (used in the active regions of high-speed electronic devices, IR lasers, and long-wavelength quantum cascade lasers) Phosphides: e.g. InGaP (GaAs-based quantum well devices such as red diode lasers) Antimonides: e.g. AlGaSb (employed in high-speed electronic and infrared optoelectronic devices) Nitrides: e.g. InGaN (key constituent in the active regions of blue diode lasers and LED’s) 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  13. 13. TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (2) The group V lattice sites are occupied by a fraction y of atoms V 1 and a fraction ( 1-y ) of atoms V 2 . Arsenides Antimonides: e.g. InAsSb (smallest band gap of all III-V’s, very important material for mid-infrared optoelectronic devices) Arsenides Phosphides: e.g. GaAsP (often used for red LED’s) Phosphides Antimonides: e.g. GaPSb 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  14. 14. TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (4) http://www.rpi.edu/~schubert/Light-Emitting-Diodes-dot-org/chap07/F07-06-R.jpg Band Gap Engineering: Arsenides, Phosphides, Antimonides 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | Ga x In 1-x As Ga x In 1-x P
  15. 15. TERNARY III-V ALLOYS (3) http://www.onr.navy.mil/sci_tech/31/312/ncsr/materials/gan.asp Band Gap Engineering: Nitrides 1.24  m 620 nm 413 nm 310 nm 248 nm 207 nm  02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  16. 16. Quaternary III-V Alloys (1) Why? Provide even greater flexibility in device design… 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | However: <ul><li>More elements -> more fabrication issues!!! (e.g. composition control requires tedious calibration growths) </li></ul><ul><li>Range of stable compositions is limited due to the fact that in thermal equilibrium the components of the alloy often tend to segregate into inhomogeneous mixture of binaries and ternaries… </li></ul>
  17. 17. Quaternary III-V Alloys (2) Panish, M.B., Temkin, H., Gas source Molecular Beam Epitaxy , Springer, 1993 Wide variety of compositions (hence various emission wavelengths) are lattice matched to either GaAs or InP… The case of Ga x In 1-x As y P 1-y 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  18. 18. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Most practical devices consists in heterostructures, i.e. layered thin film structures made of dissimilar materials deposited on top of each other (e.g. quantum well). Based on the device requirements, the designer will select the proper alloy, while keeping in mind that typical substrates consist in binary compound (such as GaAs, InP, InP, GaSb) in order to minimize the effects of lattice mismatch. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | The misfit is defined as: a s : lattice constant of the substrate material a f : lattice constant of the film material
  19. 19. LATTICE-MATCHED STRUCTURE By definition, f = 0 , i.e. both the substrate material and the film material have the same lattice constant. A misfit |f| < 5 × 10 -4 is generally considered very good, and for practical purposes is assumed lattice-matched (e.g. AlGaAs/GaAs structures) Ohring, M., The Materials Science of Thin Films , Academic Press, 1992 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  20. 20. STRAINED STRUCTURES Ohring, M., The Materials Science of Thin Films , Academic Press, 1992 f ≠ 0 (i.e. a s ≠ a f ) For relatively thin film thicknesses, cubic crystals will distort (strain develops within the layer) to achieve the same in-plane lattice constant. Such a layer is referred to as pseudomorphic . f < 0 : compressive strain f > 0 : tensile strain 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  21. 21. RELAXED STRUCTURE Beyond a certain critical thickness h c , it is energetically more favourable for the film to “relax”, i.e. achieve a state where its lattice constant tends towards its unstrained value. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | In the process, defects known as misfit dislocations form at the interface… Tu, K-N, Mayer, J.W, Feldman, L.C., Electronic thin film science for electrical engineers and materials scientists , McMillan, 1992 Burgers vector: atomic displacement needed to generate the dislocation
  22. 22. CRITICAL THICKNESS (1) h c is obtained by minimizing E tot with respect to the strain. This results in a transcendent equation: where  is the Poisson’s ratio of the film material. 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |
  23. 23. CRITICAL THICKNESS (2) 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id | Mayer, J.W, Lau, S.S., Electronic Materials Science: For integrated circuits in Si and GaAs , McMillan, 1990
  24. 24. THANK YOU 02/02/11 © 2010 Universitas Negeri Jakarta | www.unj.ac.id |

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