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A.P-INDIAA.P-INDIA
INTERNATIONALINTERNATIONAL
TELECOMMUNICATION LAWSTELECOMMUNICATION LAWS
JAYAKAR BATHULAJAYAKAR BATHULA
...
CAUTERIZATIONCAUTERIZATION
MODULE-IMODULE-I
1.1.Defenition1.1.Defenition
1.2.History1.2.History
1.3.Nature1.3.Nature
1.4.S...
Cont…..Cont…..
MODULE-IVMODULE-IV
4.1.Regional organizations4.1.Regional organizations
4.2.Intelisat4.2.Intelisat
4.3.Imme...
Definition or Meaning of Communication:-Definition or Meaning of Communication:-
 Communication over a distance by:Commun...
History of International TelecommunicationsHistory of International Telecommunications:-:-
 The history of telecommunicat...
Nature of International Telecommunications:-Nature of International Telecommunications:-
 The telecommunications industry...
Scope of International Telecommunications:-Scope of International Telecommunications:-
 Engineers,Engineers,
 Test Engin...
Development of International Telecommunications:-Development of International Telecommunications:-
 The Telecommunication...
Source of International Telecommunications:-Source of International Telecommunications:-
 While exploring the Internation...
Subjectives of International Telecommunications:-Subjectives of International Telecommunications:-
 General Recognizing o...
International Telecommunication Union:-International Telecommunication Union:-
 The International Telecommunication Union...
Legal frame work of ITU:-Legal frame work of ITU:-
 The basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU PlenipotentiaryThe ...
Structure and Functions of ITU (Article-7):-Structure and Functions of ITU (Article-7):-
Functions of International Telecommunications Union:-Functions of International Telecommunications Union:-
 It plays an i...
Post-Uruguay Round negotiations on basicPost-Uruguay Round negotiations on basic
Telecommunications:-Telecommunications:-
...
UN-Regulations of ITU:-UN-Regulations of ITU:-
 On13 December 2012 – Delegates from over 160 countries meeting inOn13 Dec...
Liberalization of International Telecommunications:-Liberalization of International Telecommunications:-
 Liberalization ...
Telecommunications Globalization and its Impact:-Telecommunications Globalization and its Impact:-
 OECD Member countries...
Commercialization and Privatization ofCommercialization and Privatization of
Telecommunications:-Telecommunications:-
 Co...
Intellectual Property Rights-InternationalIntellectual Property Rights-International
Telecommunications:-Telecommunication...
Telecommunications and WTO Agreements:-Telecommunications and WTO Agreements:-
 Technical and substantial Agreement-1996....
Regional Telecommunication Organizations:-Regional Telecommunication Organizations:-
 European Radio communications Offic...
Intelsat-20,17,10:-Intelsat-20,17,10:-
 Intelsat, S.A.Intelsat, S.A. is a communications satellite services provider.is a...
Inmarsat :-Inmarsat :-
 Inmarsat plc (Inmarsat plc (LSELSE:: ISATISAT) is a British satellite telecommunications) is a Br...
Arabsat-1,2,3,4,5 :-Arabsat-1,2,3,4,5 :-
 The Arab Satellite Communications Organization (often abbreviatedThe Arab Satel...
Development of International Telecom Laws:-Development of International Telecom Laws:-
 The legal authorities of this cou...
The Role of Non-Government Organizations:-The Role of Non-Government Organizations:-
 International non–governmental aid ...
Historical Developments of Indian Telecommunications:-Historical Developments of Indian Telecommunications:-
 The first e...
Cont…Cont…
 The Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. and The Anglo-Indian TelephoneThe Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. and The...
Liberalization and privatization in India:-Liberalization and privatization in India:-
 Minister Indira Gandhi signed con...
Cont…Cont…
 20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile20 telecommunication circles for ba...
Telecommunication Regulations in India:-Telecommunication Regulations in India:-
 The Telecom Disputes Settlement Appella...
India and International Telecom Treaties:-India and International Telecom Treaties:-
 India is party to ITU.India is part...
Telecommunications and Sustainable Development:-Telecommunications and Sustainable Development:-
 ““Developed Countries -...
Any quarries……?Any quarries……?
 Thanking you…...Thanking you…...
JAYAKAR BATHULAJAYAKAR BATHULA
Air & Space Law CenterAir...
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Jayakar bathula

International Telecommunication Laws.....

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Jayakar bathula

  1. 1. A.P-INDIAA.P-INDIA INTERNATIONALINTERNATIONAL TELECOMMUNICATION LAWSTELECOMMUNICATION LAWS JAYAKAR BATHULAJAYAKAR BATHULA Air & Space Law CenterAir & Space Law Center NALSAR University of Law-HYDERABAD.NALSAR University of Law-HYDERABAD.
  2. 2. CAUTERIZATIONCAUTERIZATION MODULE-IMODULE-I 1.1.Defenition1.1.Defenition 1.2.History1.2.History 1.3.Nature1.3.Nature 1.4.Scope1.4.Scope 1.5.Development1.5.Development MODULE-IIMODULE-II 2.1.Sources2.1.Sources 2.2.Subjects2.2.Subjects 2.3..ITU-History2.3..ITU-History 2.4. Legal Frame Work2.4. Legal Frame Work 2.5.Structure & Functions2.5.Structure & Functions MODULE-IIIMODULE-III 3.1. Globalization and it’s Impact3.1. Globalization and it’s Impact 3.2. UN & WTO Regulations3.2. UN & WTO Regulations 3.3. Liberalization3.3. Liberalization 3.4. Privatization3.4. Privatization 3.5. Commercialization3.5. Commercialization
  3. 3. Cont…..Cont….. MODULE-IVMODULE-IV 4.1.Regional organizations4.1.Regional organizations 4.2.Intelisat4.2.Intelisat 4.3.Immersat4.3.Immersat 4.4.Arabsat4.4.Arabsat MODULE-VMODULE-V 5.1. History & Development in India5.1. History & Development in India 5.2.Libaralisation & Privatization in India5.2.Libaralisation & Privatization in India 5.3. India-International Treaties & Agreements5.3. India-International Treaties & Agreements 5.3. Non-Government Organizations5.3. Non-Government Organizations 5.4. Sustainable Development5.4. Sustainable Development
  4. 4. Definition or Meaning of Communication:-Definition or Meaning of Communication:-  Communication over a distance by:Communication over a distance by: Cable,Cable, Telegraph,Telegraph, Telephone,Telephone, Or broadcasting is Called Communication.Or broadcasting is Called Communication. The science and technology of communication at a distance byThe science and technology of communication at a distance by electronic transmission of impulses, as by telegraph, cable, telephone,electronic transmission of impulses, as by telegraph, cable, telephone, radio, or television.radio, or television. Telecommunications refers to the exchange of information byTelecommunications refers to the exchange of information by electronic and electrical means over a significant distance. A completeelectronic and electrical means over a significant distance. A complete telecommunication arrangement is made up of two or more stationstelecommunication arrangement is made up of two or more stations equipped with transmitter and receiver devices.equipped with transmitter and receiver devices.
  5. 5. History of International TelecommunicationsHistory of International Telecommunications:-:-  The history of telecommunication began with the use of smoke signalsThe history of telecommunication began with the use of smoke signals and drums in Africa, New Guinea and North America, China and partsand drums in Africa, New Guinea and North America, China and parts of Asia in the 1790s.of Asia in the 1790s.  The first Electrical Telecommunication systems started in 1830 in Europe.The first Electrical Telecommunication systems started in 1830 in Europe.  The foundation stone of modern telecommunications is the use ofThe foundation stone of modern telecommunications is the use of Telegraphy Singles in Mid-19Telegraphy Singles in Mid-19thth Century.Century.  Alfred Vail developed the registered 5km Telegraph in 1830.Alfred Vail developed the registered 5km Telegraph in 1830.  Its spread over 32,000 km in U.S in 1851.Its spread over 32,000 km in U.S in 1851.  The first Electrical Telephone invented in 1870, Patented in 1876 byThe first Electrical Telephone invented in 1870, Patented in 1876 by Alexander Graham bell.Alexander Graham bell.  First Commercial Telephone Service setup 1878 and 1879.First Commercial Telephone Service setup 1878 and 1879.  Bell and Charles conducted First wireless Telephone call in 1880.Bell and Charles conducted First wireless Telephone call in 1880.
  6. 6. Nature of International Telecommunications:-Nature of International Telecommunications:-  The telecommunications industry, in every respect, has grown vastly overThe telecommunications industry, in every respect, has grown vastly over the past two decades.the past two decades.  Changes in technology-Fiber optics, wireless and other signal-processing.Changes in technology-Fiber optics, wireless and other signal-processing.  Created new markets and made new network infrastructure far moreCreated new markets and made new network infrastructure far more affordable, increasing competition. In recent years.affordable, increasing competition. In recent years.  Competitive nature:-Competitive nature:-  It is very competitive, Increased competition could lead to price reductions,It is very competitive, Increased competition could lead to price reductions, declining sales volumes, loss of market share, higher marketing costs anddeclining sales volumes, loss of market share, higher marketing costs and reduced operating margins.reduced operating margins.  High-speed fiber optic networks or satellite telecommunications services.High-speed fiber optic networks or satellite telecommunications services.  Provide traditional telephone services over nontraditional networkProvide traditional telephone services over nontraditional network infrastructures, like electric utilities.infrastructures, like electric utilities.
  7. 7. Scope of International Telecommunications:-Scope of International Telecommunications:-  Engineers,Engineers,  Test Engineers,Test Engineers,  Product work,Product work,  Great Demand in Industry,Great Demand in Industry,  Communication EquipmentCommunication Equipment  Customer Support Service,Customer Support Service,  Software or Applications Engineers,Software or Applications Engineers,  To enhance relations,To enhance relations,  Career opportunities,Career opportunities,  Public Relations and Government Relations,Public Relations and Government Relations,
  8. 8. Development of International Telecommunications:-Development of International Telecommunications:-  The Telecommunication Development Conferences serve as forums forThe Telecommunication Development Conferences serve as forums for free discussion by all concerned with the Development Sector.free discussion by all concerned with the Development Sector.  The World Conferences-"work-in-progress.The World Conferences-"work-in-progress.  WTDC 1994-WTDC 1994-in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 21 to 29 March 1994.in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 21 to 29 March 1994.  WTDC 1998-WTDC 1998-in Valletta, Malta, from 23 March to 1 April 1998.in Valletta, Malta, from 23 March to 1 April 1998.  WTDC 2002-WTDC 2002-in Istanbul, Turkey from 18 to 27 March 2002.in Istanbul, Turkey from 18 to 27 March 2002.  WTDC 2006-WTDC 2006-in Doha, Qatar, 7 to 15 March.in Doha, Qatar, 7 to 15 March.  WTDC 2010-WTDC 2010-in Hyderabad, India, from 24 May to 4 June 2010.in Hyderabad, India, from 24 May to 4 June 2010.  WTDC 2014-WTDC 2014-in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from 30 March to 10 Aprilin Dubai, United Arab Emirates, from 30 March to 10 April 2014 at the kind invitation of the United Arab Emirates-Will be held.2014 at the kind invitation of the United Arab Emirates-Will be held.
  9. 9. Source of International Telecommunications:-Source of International Telecommunications:-  While exploring the International Telegraph Union (ITU)s objectives, itsWhile exploring the International Telegraph Union (ITU)s objectives, its foundation and legal frame work for examining the reasons for itsfoundation and legal frame work for examining the reasons for its speciality.speciality.  The ITU together with the Universal Postal Union – The Sleeping BeautyThe ITU together with the Universal Postal Union – The Sleeping Beauty of ITU.of ITU.  United Nations -Regulations .United Nations -Regulations .  WTO-Regulations.WTO-Regulations.  Regional Regulations.Regional Regulations.  ITU- A new source of International Telecommunication Law.ITU- A new source of International Telecommunication Law.  ITU has on the international plane is made within its three main sectors,ITU has on the international plane is made within its three main sectors,  Telecommunication Standardization (ITU-T),Telecommunication Standardization (ITU-T),  Radio communication (ITU-R) .Radio communication (ITU-R) .  Telecommunication Development (ITU-D).Telecommunication Development (ITU-D).
  10. 10. Subjectives of International Telecommunications:-Subjectives of International Telecommunications:-  General Recognizing of the sovereign right of each state.General Recognizing of the sovereign right of each state.  Maintenance and extension of co-operation.Maintenance and extension of co-operation.  Promotion,Promotion,  Development,Development,  Efficiency,Efficiency,  Facilitate Services.Facilitate Services.
  11. 11. International Telecommunication Union:-International Telecommunication Union:-  The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), originallyThe International Telecommunication Union (ITU), originally the International Telegraph Union-founded in Paris in 1865.the International Telegraph Union-founded in Paris in 1865.  It took its present name International Telecommunication Union in 1932.It took its present name International Telecommunication Union in 1932.  It became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947.It became a specialized agency of the United Nations in 1947.  Digital broadcasting to the Internet,Digital broadcasting to the Internet,  From mobile technologies to 3D TV.From mobile technologies to 3D TV.  An organization of public-private partnership since its inception.An organization of public-private partnership since its inception.  ITU currently has a membership of 193 countries and some 700 private-ITU currently has a membership of 193 countries and some 700 private- sector entities.sector entities.  Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has twelve regional and areaHeadquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has twelve regional and area offices around the world.offices around the world.
  12. 12. Legal frame work of ITU:-Legal frame work of ITU:-  The basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU PlenipotentiaryThe basic texts of the ITU are adopted by the ITU Plenipotentiary Conference.Conference.  Within the complexWithin the complex  structure of the ITU, lawmaking takes on a variety of different forms.structure of the ITU, lawmaking takes on a variety of different forms.  All dealing exclusively with Internationaltelecommunications According toAll dealing exclusively with Internationaltelecommunications According to Article 4 of ITU.Article 4 of ITU.  ITU Regulations are binding on its members, too, accordingITU Regulations are binding on its members, too, according  to Article 4 (3) of ITU.to Article 4 (3) of ITU.  Harmful interference in respect of radio communication Article 45.Harmful interference in respect of radio communication Article 45.  The provisions regarding the settlement of disputes are set out in Article 56The provisions regarding the settlement of disputes are set out in Article 56 of the ITU.of the ITU.  Dispute settlement by negotiation, through diplomatic channels, BilateralDispute settlement by negotiation, through diplomatic channels, Bilateral Treaties and Multilateral Treaties.Treaties and Multilateral Treaties.  The Constitution requiring a two-thirds majority for its amendment-The Constitution requiring a two-thirds majority for its amendment- (Plenipotentiary Constitution)(Plenipotentiary Constitution)
  13. 13. Structure and Functions of ITU (Article-7):-Structure and Functions of ITU (Article-7):-
  14. 14. Functions of International Telecommunications Union:-Functions of International Telecommunications Union:-  It plays an importantIt plays an important rolerole in radio frequency.in radio frequency.  The organization acts as a forum for governments.The organization acts as a forum for governments.  The private sector to coordinate technical and policy matters related toThe private sector to coordinate technical and policy matters related to global telecommunications networks and services.global telecommunications networks and services.  ITU-T mission is to ensure the efficient and timely production of standardsITU-T mission is to ensure the efficient and timely production of standards covering all fields of telecommunications on a worldwide basis.covering all fields of telecommunications on a worldwide basis.  Defining tariff and accounting principles for internationalDefining tariff and accounting principles for international telecommunication services.telecommunication services.  The Recommendations will become Mandatory when the State adopted asThe Recommendations will become Mandatory when the State adopted as part of a national law.part of a national law.
  15. 15. Post-Uruguay Round negotiations on basicPost-Uruguay Round negotiations on basic Telecommunications:-Telecommunications:-  The Ministerial Decision On Negotiations of Basic Telecommunications,The Ministerial Decision On Negotiations of Basic Telecommunications, adopted in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994, allowed negotiations on basicadopted in Marrakesh on 15 April 1994, allowed negotiations on basic telecommunications to continue beyond the conclusion of the Uruguaytelecommunications to continue beyond the conclusion of the Uruguay Round.Round.  Fourth Protocol to the General Agreement on Trade in Services GATS.Fourth Protocol to the General Agreement on Trade in Services GATS.  The Protocol, adopted on 30 April 1996, entered into force on 5 FebruaryThe Protocol, adopted on 30 April 1996, entered into force on 5 February 1998.1998.  Trade policies, a move considered important for making trade regimesTrade policies, a move considered important for making trade regimes transparent around the world.transparent around the world.  WTO members have committed to the regulatory principles spelled out inWTO members have committed to the regulatory principles spelled out in the “Reference Paper”, a blueprint for sector reform that largely reflectsthe “Reference Paper”, a blueprint for sector reform that largely reflects “best practice” in telecoms regulation.“best practice” in telecoms regulation.
  16. 16. UN-Regulations of ITU:-UN-Regulations of ITU:-  On13 December 2012 – Delegates from over 160 countries meeting inOn13 December 2012 – Delegates from over 160 countries meeting in Dubai have finished drafting the text of a revised global treaty that sets outDubai have finished drafting the text of a revised global treaty that sets out general principles for assuring the free flow of information worldwide, thegeneral principles for assuring the free flow of information worldwide, the United Nations International Telecommunication Union (ITU).United Nations International Telecommunication Union (ITU).  Transparency in international mobile roaming charges and competition.Transparency in international mobile roaming charges and competition.  An extremely important win for consumers.An extremely important win for consumers.  To facilitate International interconnection of information andTo facilitate International interconnection of information and communication services.communication services.  Ensuring their efficiency and widespread public usefulness andEnsuring their efficiency and widespread public usefulness and availability.availability.  The revised treaty contains a newly updated article that will promoteThe revised treaty contains a newly updated article that will promote greater connectivity for people with disabilities as well as a new resolutiongreater connectivity for people with disabilities as well as a new resolution covering land-locked developing nations and small island developingcovering land-locked developing nations and small island developing States.States.
  17. 17. Liberalization of International Telecommunications:-Liberalization of International Telecommunications:-  Liberalization makes possible the private investment necessary to financeLiberalization makes possible the private investment necessary to finance the communications and infrastructure.the communications and infrastructure.  Upgrade and maintain communications networks and make them availableUpgrade and maintain communications networks and make them available to all citizens.to all citizens.  At the same time, both foreign and domestic private investors are eager toAt the same time, both foreign and domestic private investors are eager to invest in upgrading infrastructure and rolling out new networks andinvest in upgrading infrastructure and rolling out new networks and services.services.  Liberalizing the telecoms market creates an opportunity to attract thatLiberalizing the telecoms market creates an opportunity to attract that investment.investment.  Dramatic benefits to consumers in terms of lower retail prices.Dramatic benefits to consumers in terms of lower retail prices.  Average international call prices in countries liberalizing fell by at leastAverage international call prices in countries liberalizing fell by at least 31% with partial liberalization and as high as 90% .31% with partial liberalization and as high as 90% .
  18. 18. Telecommunications Globalization and its Impact:-Telecommunications Globalization and its Impact:-  OECD Member countries has spilled over into the TelecommunicationOECD Member countries has spilled over into the Telecommunication sector of….sector of….  ManufacturingManufacturing  ServicesServices  geographic coveragegeographic coverage  trade and foreign investmenttrade and foreign investment  The nationality of the PTO does not matter to the customer: The nationalityThe nationality of the PTO does not matter to the customer: The nationality of the customer does not matter to the PTO.of the customer does not matter to the PTO.  PTO globalizing activities, including:PTO globalizing activities, including:  I ) new service options in the provision of existing internationalI ) new service options in the provision of existing international telecommunication services.telecommunication services.  II) foreign direct investment (FDI).II) foreign direct investment (FDI).  III) off-shore services.III) off-shore services.
  19. 19. Commercialization and Privatization ofCommercialization and Privatization of Telecommunications:-Telecommunications:-  Commercialization is the process of transforming a new idea in 1980s.Commercialization is the process of transforming a new idea in 1980s.  Value depend on the amount of users.Value depend on the amount of users.  The importance of distribution rate.The importance of distribution rate.  In order for customers to experience value.In order for customers to experience value.  (1) discover;(1) discover;  (2) create;(2) create;  (3) realize.(3) realize.  (4)Technology change.(4)Technology change.  (5)Product development(5)Product development  Latin American, Caribbean countries and African countries.Latin American, Caribbean countries and African countries.
  20. 20. Intellectual Property Rights-InternationalIntellectual Property Rights-International Telecommunications:-Telecommunications:-  The early 1980s witnessed rapid changes in telecommunications as well asThe early 1980s witnessed rapid changes in telecommunications as well as computer industries.computer industries.  The evolution of the inventor from individual inventor to a corporateThe evolution of the inventor from individual inventor to a corporate inventor.inventor.  Uruguay Round.Uruguay Round.  ‘‘Strengthen’ patent protection and other intellectual property rights (1986-Strengthen’ patent protection and other intellectual property rights (1986- 94).94).  Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) underTrade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) under World Trade Organization (WTO).World Trade Organization (WTO).
  21. 21. Telecommunications and WTO Agreements:-Telecommunications and WTO Agreements:-  Technical and substantial Agreement-1996.Technical and substantial Agreement-1996.  The February 1997 deadline for the negotiations on basicThe February 1997 deadline for the negotiations on basic telecommunications.telecommunications.  38 (52 governments) offered domestic long distance.38 (52 governments) offered domestic long distance.  41 schedules (55 governments) committed on local service.41 schedules (55 governments) committed on local service.  42 (56 governments) offered international service.42 (56 governments) offered international service.  More than 70% of the 59 governments permitting a degree of competitionMore than 70% of the 59 governments permitting a degree of competition in public voice service. Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei &in public voice service. Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Brunei & Darussalam.Darussalam.
  22. 22. Regional Telecommunication Organizations:-Regional Telecommunication Organizations:-  European Radio communications OfficeEuropean Radio communications Office  Federal Communications Commission (USA)Federal Communications Commission (USA)  Of com (UK)Of com (UK)  Agency National des Frequencies (France)Agency National des Frequencies (France)  Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (UAE)Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (UAE)  Australian Communications and Media Authority (Australia).Australian Communications and Media Authority (Australia).
  23. 23. Intelsat-20,17,10:-Intelsat-20,17,10:-  Intelsat, S.A.Intelsat, S.A. is a communications satellite services provider.is a communications satellite services provider.  The Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO) began on August 20, 1964,The Inter-Governmental Organization (IGO) began on August 20, 1964, with 11 participating countries.with 11 participating countries.  Due to heavy lobbying by PanAmSat, a US satellite operator, the USDue to heavy lobbying by PanAmSat, a US satellite operator, the US congress passed the Open Market Reorganization for the Betterment ofcongress passed the Open Market Reorganization for the Betterment of International Telecommunications (ORBIT) ActInternational Telecommunications (ORBIT) Act to privatize theto privatize the International organization.International organization.  On July 18, 2001, Intelsat became a private company.On July 18, 2001, Intelsat became a private company.  Satellite services were available to any organization (both INTELSATSatellite services were available to any organization (both INTELSAT members and non-members).members and non-members).  Headquarters:Headquarters: Luxembourg, Luxembourg.Luxembourg, Luxembourg.  Founded:Founded: 19641964
  24. 24. Inmarsat :-Inmarsat :-  Inmarsat plc (Inmarsat plc (LSELSE:: ISATISAT) is a British satellite telecommunications) is a British satellite telecommunications company, offering global, mobile services.company, offering global, mobile services.  Eleven geostationary telecommunications satellites Inmarsat's networkEleven geostationary telecommunications satellites Inmarsat's network provides communications services to a range of governments, aid agencies,provides communications services to a range of governments, aid agencies, media outlets and businesses with a need to communicate in remotemedia outlets and businesses with a need to communicate in remote regions or where there is no reliable terrestrial network.regions or where there is no reliable terrestrial network.  The company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituentThe company is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index as of December 2011.of the FTSE 250 Index as of December 2011.  Headquarters:Headquarters: London, ENG, United KingdomLondon, ENG, United Kingdom  Founded:Founded: 19791979
  25. 25. Arabsat-1,2,3,4,5 :-Arabsat-1,2,3,4,5 :-  The Arab Satellite Communications Organization (often abbreviatedThe Arab Satellite Communications Organization (often abbreviated as Arabsat) is a leading communications satellite operator in the Arabas Arabsat) is a leading communications satellite operator in the Arab World.World.  It was created to deliver satellite-based, public and privateIt was created to deliver satellite-based, public and private telecommunications services to the Arab States, in accordance withtelecommunications services to the Arab States, in accordance with International Standards.International Standards.  With more than 20 member countries, the organization plays a vital role ofWith more than 20 member countries, the organization plays a vital role of enhancing communications in the Arab World.enhancing communications in the Arab World.  On 16 June 2007, Arabsat held a contract-signing ceremony for theOn 16 June 2007, Arabsat held a contract-signing ceremony for the manufacture and launch of the fifth generation of Arabsat satellites, basedmanufacture and launch of the fifth generation of Arabsat satellites, based on the Astrium's Eurostar E3000 platform and Thales Alenia Spaceon the Astrium's Eurostar E3000 platform and Thales Alenia Space payloads.payloads.
  26. 26. Development of International Telecom Laws:-Development of International Telecom Laws:-  The legal authorities of this country shall cooperate directly and to theThe legal authorities of this country shall cooperate directly and to the widest extent possible with legal authorities.widest extent possible with legal authorities.  Investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offenses.Investigations or proceedings concerning criminal offenses.  The collection of evidence in electronic or any other form of a criminalThe collection of evidence in electronic or any other form of a criminal offense.offense.  obligations that this country has assumed under international legalobligations that this country has assumed under international legal instruments.instruments.  International legal assistance in criminal matters.International legal assistance in criminal matters.  The identification, blocking, seizing or confiscation of the evidence,The identification, blocking, seizing or confiscation of the evidence, products, and instruments of the criminal offence.products, and instruments of the criminal offence.
  27. 27. The Role of Non-Government Organizations:-The Role of Non-Government Organizations:-  International non–governmental aid giving organizations developed theirInternational non–governmental aid giving organizations developed their own network using available technologies in 1980s.own network using available technologies in 1980s.  For social and economic justice.For social and economic justice.  Link grassroots activists.Link grassroots activists.  Facilitate community–based research and education.Facilitate community–based research and education.  Bridge international political fault lines.Bridge international political fault lines.  Collect and circulate human rights data.Collect and circulate human rights data.  And disseminate information on sustainable development.And disseminate information on sustainable development.  The International Coalition for Development Action (ICDA), and wasThe International Coalition for Development Action (ICDA), and was based in Belgium.based in Belgium.  London–based Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR).London–based Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR).
  28. 28. Historical Developments of Indian Telecommunications:-Historical Developments of Indian Telecommunications:-  The first experimental electric telegraph line was started between KolkataThe first experimental electric telegraph line was started between Kolkata and Diamond Harbour in 1850.and Diamond Harbour in 1850.  opened for the use of the British East India Company in 1851.opened for the use of the British East India Company in 1851.  6,400 km, Kolkata (then Calcutta) and Peshawar,6,400 km, Kolkata (then Calcutta) and Peshawar,  Agra, Mumbai (then Bombay) through Sindwa Ghats,Agra, Mumbai (then Bombay) through Sindwa Ghats,  Chennai (then Madras) in the south,Chennai (then Madras) in the south,  As well as Ootacamund and Bangalore was started in November 1853.As well as Ootacamund and Bangalore was started in November 1853.
  29. 29. Cont…Cont…  The Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. and The Anglo-Indian TelephoneThe Oriental Telephone Company Ltd. and The Anglo-Indian Telephone Company Ltd approached the Government of India to establish telephoneCompany Ltd approached the Government of India to establish telephone exchanges in India in 1880.exchanges in India in 1880.  Pre-1902–Cabletelegraph.Pre-1902–Cabletelegraph.  1902–First wireless telegraph station established between Sagar Island and1902–First wireless telegraph station established between Sagar Island and Sandhead.Sandhead.  1907–FirstCentralBatteryof telephones introduced in Kanpur.1907–FirstCentralBatteryof telephones introduced in Kanpur.  1913–1914 – First Automatic Exchange installed in Shimla.1913–1914 – First Automatic Exchange installed in Shimla.  1927 – Radio-telegraph system between the UK and India, with Imperial1927 – Radio-telegraph system between the UK and India, with Imperial Wireless Chain beam stations at Khadki and Daund. Inaugurated by LordWireless Chain beam stations at Khadki and Daund. Inaugurated by Lord Irwin on 23 July by exchanging greetings with King George V.Irwin on 23 July by exchanging greetings with King George V.
  30. 30. Liberalization and privatization in India:-Liberalization and privatization in India:-  Minister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France inMinister Indira Gandhi signed contracts with Alcatel CIT of France in 1981.1981.  In 1985, the Department of Telecom(D oT) was separated from Indian PostIn 1985, the Department of Telecom(D oT) was separated from Indian Post & Telecommunication Department.& Telecommunication Department.  Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and Videsh SancharMahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL) and Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) were carved out of DoT 1986.Nigam Limited (VSNL) were carved out of DoT 1986.  India opened up for privatization in 1991.India opened up for privatization in 1991.  National Telecommunications policy (NTP) in 1994:National Telecommunications policy (NTP) in 1994:  Ownership,Ownership,  Service and regulation of telecommunicationsService and regulation of telecommunications  Infrastructure.Infrastructure.
  31. 31. Cont…Cont…  20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile20 telecommunication circles for basic telephony and 18 circles for mobile services in India.services in India.  Two service providers were allowed per circle and a 15 years license wasTwo service providers were allowed per circle and a 15 years license was given to each provider.given to each provider.  TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) which reduced theTRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) which reduced the interference of Government in deciding tariffs and policy making, in 1997.interference of Government in deciding tariffs and policy making, in 1997.  TRAI's mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth ofTRAI's mission is to create and nurture conditions for growth of telecommunications in the country in a manner and at a pace which willtelecommunications in the country in a manner and at a pace which will enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society.enable India to play a leading role in emerging global information society.  From a Government owned monopoly to a multi operator multi serviceFrom a Government owned monopoly to a multi operator multi service open competitive market.open competitive market.
  32. 32. Telecommunication Regulations in India:-Telecommunication Regulations in India:-  The Telecom Disputes Settlement Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) wasThe Telecom Disputes Settlement Appellate Tribunal (TDSAT) was constituted through an amendment of the 1997 act in 2000.constituted through an amendment of the 1997 act in 2000.  Decision of TRAI can be challenged by appealing in TDSAT.Decision of TRAI can be challenged by appealing in TDSAT.  A chairman, 2 permanent members and 2 part-time members who are to beA chairman, 2 permanent members and 2 part-time members who are to be associated with Authority.associated with Authority.  TRAI is working day-in and day-out in order to help the nation emerge as aTRAI is working day-in and day-out in order to help the nation emerge as a global information center.global information center.  Section 25 of the TRAI Act says "bound by such directions on questions ofSection 25 of the TRAI Act says "bound by such directions on questions of policy as the central government may give in writing to it from time topolicy as the central government may give in writing to it from time to time".time".
  33. 33. India and International Telecom Treaties:-India and International Telecom Treaties:-  India is party to ITU.India is party to ITU.  India is party to International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs).India is party to International Telecommunication Regulations (ITRs).  India is party to the Dubai conference.India is party to the Dubai conference.  Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI) which serves roughly 700Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI) which serves roughly 700 million mobile consumers,million mobile consumers,  including mobile Internet, had opposed ITU’s control over issues ofincluding mobile Internet, had opposed ITU’s control over issues of international roaming and content regulation by way of spam.international roaming and content regulation by way of spam.  National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM).National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM).  Data Security Council of India (DSCI) that represent IT companies hadData Security Council of India (DSCI) that represent IT companies had opposed the treaty on issues of ITU’s control over cyber security.opposed the treaty on issues of ITU’s control over cyber security.
  34. 34. Telecommunications and Sustainable Development:-Telecommunications and Sustainable Development:-  ““Developed Countries -"donors."Developed Countries -"donors."  Developing Countries-Recipients.Developing Countries-Recipients.  Education and health care and creating employment opportunities .Education and health care and creating employment opportunities .  The need for sustainable,The need for sustainable,  Ecologically sound developmentEcologically sound development  More equitable distribution of the world's resources is widely recognized.More equitable distribution of the world's resources is widely recognized.  For economic,For economic,  Social and cultural development.Social and cultural development.  ““Official development assistance.Official development assistance.  Needs for telecommunications in rural and remote areas.Needs for telecommunications in rural and remote areas.  Economic activities in rural and remote areas.Economic activities in rural and remote areas.
  35. 35. Any quarries……?Any quarries……?  Thanking you…...Thanking you…... JAYAKAR BATHULAJAYAKAR BATHULA Air & Space Law CenterAir & Space Law Center NALSAR University of Law-HYDERABAD.NALSAR University of Law-HYDERABAD.

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