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Mangrove flora of karnataka


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Floral Diversity of Mangrove ecosystem of Karnataka India

Mangrove flora of karnataka

  1. 1. MANGROVE FLORA OF KARNATAKA Presented in Timi Kurm Festival (Whale-turtle Fesival) 18-20 October 2013 at U.K. District Science Centre, Karwar Organised by Terra Marine Research Institute, India Dr. M. Jayakara Bhandary Associate Professor & Head Department of Botany Government Arts and Science College Karwar – 581301
  2. 2. Coasts are very important!  Coastal Areas of the World - Resource Rich  Most inhabited, Exploited Geographical Units  Supports 50% Global Population  Provides 90% global fish supply  Sink for 90% of River load/Pollutants  Anything that affects the Coastal Ecological Balance affect smajority of People on Earth!
  3. 3. WHAT ARE MANGROVES? Mangroves are generally salt tolerant plants growing in the swampy mud of coastal areas. They grow in intertidal zones of river mouths, lagoons and creeks which form the estuaries where river water mixes with seawater. The evergreen mangrove trees and shrubs assemble together to form dense mangrove forests along the seashore.
  4. 4. Global Distribution…. 120 tropical and Sub tropical Countries. 18.1 milion ha. Source: Spalding et al., 1997, The World Mangrove Atlas
  5. 5. Mangroves of India….  Occurs along the East Coast (80%) and West Coast (20%).  3-4% of Global Extent  Area estimates range from 7 lac ha. to 3.6 lac ha.  4,639 Km2 - 2007  Sundarbans, Mahanadi Delta, Picchavaram, Cauvery Delta, GodavariKrishna Estuarine Complex, Andaman-Nicobar Islands – notable mangrove locations.
  6. 6. Mangroves of Karnataka • Official Estimates 2 - 3 Km2 Underestimated! • Along estuaries, Fringing Type • Kali, Aghanashini, Sharavathi, Kundapura, Nethravathi – main locations • Fragmented Patches
  7. 7. Mangroves of Kali Estuary 14 out of 15 True mangrove species of Karnataka grow here
  8. 8. Living between Sea & Land – Special Features:  Mangrove plants are equipped with many unique biological adaptations which make them fit to survive in the salt-rich, oxygen-poor soil periodically flushed by tides, which is otherwise hostile to plants.  Most important special features are:  Dense network of aerial root system for breathing (pneumatophores) and additional support (stilt roots)  Seeds germinating into seedlings while the fruits are still attached to the mother plant (vivipary)  Salt-filtering roots to absorb only pure water  Salt glands in the leaves to excrete excess salt if absorbed
  9. 9. Biological Speciality – Highly adapted to mangrove habitats
  10. 10. Vivipary
  11. 11. Viviparous seed germination in mangroves
  12. 12. Viviparous seed germination in mangroves- contd.
  13. 13. Floral Diversity  Global – About 90 species  India  East Coast – 60 species  West Coast – 34 species  Karnataka – 35 species  True Mangroves- Exclusive mangroves  Mangrove Associates – Also found outside mangrove habitats Rhizophoraceae, Avicenniaceae, Sonneratiaceae – Major true mangrove families
  14. 14. TRUE MANGROVE PLANTS Aegiceras corniculatum (Myrsinaceae) Large shrubs growing in dense patches Slender stilt roots Leaves alternate, spirally arranged Dense umbellate clusters of small, fragrant white flowers bunches of curved propagules with pointed tips, reddish when mature. Fl. All round the year
  15. 15. Acanthus ilicifolius (Acanthaceae) Shrubby plants growing in dense patches Leaves with wavy margin having sharp spines Large blue flowers at the tips of branches Bracts prominent, 4 seeded fruits. Fl. March-June
  16. 16. Acrostichum aureum Pteridaceae (Mangrove Fern). Pinnately compound leaves, Rhizome erect. Tender shoots and rhizomes edible.
  17. 17. Avicennia marina (Avicenniaceae) Small trees with white bark Cluster of pencil-like breathing roots around the stem Leaves small with acute tip Cluster of small, yellow flowers on long stalks. Stamens not projecting Almond-like fruits with shining silky surface
  18. 18. Avicennia officinalis (Avicenniaceae) Large trees with grayish black bark Cluster of pencil-like breathing roots around the stem Leaves with rounded tip Cluster of small, yellow flowers on long stalks. Stamens projecting out Almond-like fruits with shining silky surface. Fl. May-June
  19. 19. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (Rhizophoraceae) Small trees with buttresses and knee roots Leaves dark green, stalk and midrib reddish Flowers single, reddish, many(12-18) calyx lobes and petals Propagules slightly angled with blunt tip. Fl. December-February
  20. 20. Bruguiera cylindrica (Rhizophoraceae)
  21. 21. Excoecaria agallocha (Euphorbiaceae) Large shrubs with milky latex Stilt and breathing roots absent Leaves alternate, reddish when old Dense clusters of minute, yellow, unisexual flowers Trilobed (soapnut –like) fruits. Fl. July-August
  22. 22. Sonneratia alba (Sonneratiaceae) Small trees with many upward conical breathing roots all around the stem Leaves opposite, tip rounded Flowers large, white, calyx cup-like with 6 lobes, many long white stamens Large apple-like fruits, flat at the tip with short taillike style. Fl. March-July
  23. 23. Sonneratia caseolaris (Sonneratiaceae) Large trees with many upward conical breathing roots all around the stem Leaves opposite, tip rounded with a pore, stalk very short and pink Flowers large, dark red, calyx cup-like with 6 lobes, many long reddish stamens Large apple-like fruits, with a long tail-like style at the tip Fl. October-December
  24. 24. Rhizophora apiculata (Rhizophoraceae) Trees with stilt roots hanging from the base of the stem Leaves large, leathery with a small bristle-like point at the tip Pairs of creamish flowers without stalk, calyx lobes 4, stamens 12 Long hanging propagules (about 50 cm long)
  25. 25. Rhizophora mucronata (Rhizophoraceae) Large trees (about 12 m. tall) with many stilt roots hanging from the base of the stem and old branches Leaves large, leathery with a narrow spinous outgrowth at the tip Groups of 4-8 creamishwhite flowers on long stalks, calyx lobes 4, stamens 8. Long hanging propagules (about 65 cm long). Fl. June-August
  26. 26. Kandelia candel (Rhizophoraceae) Large shrubs or short trees, stem base flattened with flaky bark Leaves narrow and long Many white flowers on long stalk, sepals and petals 5 each, stamens many Hanging propagules in bunches, about 40 cm long, with reflexed calyx lobes. Fl. June-July
  27. 27. Lumnitzera racemosa (Combretaceae) Small Trees Flowers white
  28. 28. Cerbera odollam (Apocynaceae) Honde, Tende Trees with white latex Flowers white, sweet scented Fruits mango sized, green Fl. Round the year
  29. 29. Mangrove Associate Plants
  30. 30. ECOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE •Coastal Shore Protection - Bioshields •Breeding Ground for crabs, shrimps, Fishes •Tsunami/Cyclone Protection ? •Nutrient source for marine Food Web •Habitat for Birds, other animals •Source of Firewood and other domestic needs •Carbon Sequestering •Eco-Tourism Spots •Educational/Research materials
  31. 31. Mangrove Ecotourism
  32. 32. Thank you…..