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Biotechnology karnataka sslc


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Biotechnology karnataka sslc

  1. 1. By learning, you will teach. By teaching you will understand. -A Latin Proverb<br />BIOTECHNOLOGY(To Teachers & Students of Karnataka SSLC)<br />DR. M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY<br />DEPT. OF BOTANY & BIOTECHNOLOGY<br />GOVERNMENT SCIENCE COLLEGE, KARWAR<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br />Applications of biological systems / processes / organisms to manufacturing (Products) or serviceindustries (Services).<br />
  4. 4. HISTORY….<br />Old / Biotechnology – Bread making, wine making, fermentation, milk products, Even Idli Making<br />
  5. 5. Modern Biotechnology<br />1980 onwards<br />Genetic Engineering<br />DNA Fingerprinting<br />Plant Tissue Culture<br />Cloning, etc.<br />
  6. 6. GENETIC ENGINEERING<br />Changing genetic material of an organism by transferring genes from other organisms<br />Creating organisms with new genes/ characters – Genetically modified Organisms (GMO’s) or transgenic Organisms.<br />Addition or Modification of characters of organisms<br />
  7. 7. Recombinant DNA technology – Joining or combining genes from two or more organisms in the laboratory.<br />
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  10. 10. Genetically Engineered Tobacco Plant with Luceferene Gene<br />Fire Fly (Luciferene gene)<br />
  11. 11. Insulin Production by Bacteria<br />Transfer of <br />Insulin Gene<br />Insulin producing Bacteria<br />
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  13. 13. DNA FINGERPRINTING<br />Technique which helps in the establishment of identity of a person or organism based on uniqueness of DNA sequence. <br />Every person’s DNA sequence is different from all others, like finger print or signatures.<br />
  14. 14. Techniques…<br />. Collection of DNA, cutting into pieces, Separation of pieces by Gel Electrophoresis, Processing of separated DNA bands which appear like ‘Bar Codes’.<br />
  15. 15. DNA Fingerprinting <br />
  16. 16. DNA fingerprint of a person <br />Application : Detection of criminals, solving parental disputes<br />
  17. 17. PLANT TISSUE CULTURE<br />Technique of growing isolated plant tissues or cells in an artificial medium under aseptic conditions.<br />Plant cells TOTIPOTENT. Each cell can Multiply and develop in to new plants when cultured.<br />Growth medium: Nutrients, vitamins, hormones, agar<br />
  18. 18. New Plantlets<br />Medium<br />
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  20. 20. USES OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE<br />Micropropagation – large number of plants in small space<br />Disease free plant production<br />Somatic hybridisation/cybrid production- Pomato<br />Transgenic plant production – Nif gene transfer<br />Pollen culture – haploid plants – Parthenocarpy – Protection of pure charecters.<br />Shortening of Flowering Period – Rose?<br />
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  22. 22. Cloning<br />Identicle/ exactly similar cells / organisms <br />Plants produced by cuttings/ vegetative propagation are genetically similar – in vivoclones (Hibiscus, Rose, etc.) <br />Tissue culture Plants – in vitro Clones<br />Animals from cell of a single parent – in vitro method<br />Dolly sheep – first animal clone produced by Ian Wilmut.<br />Cloning is possible in frogs, rats, monkeys<br />Xerox copies of parent animal (usually superior quality mother) <br />
  23. 23. How Dolly was produced?<br />
  24. 24. Applications of Biotechnology<br />Agricultural Applications – new variety of crop plants, animal breeds <br />Ex: Bt cotton, Golden Rice, Fast growing sheeps, Pigs<br />
  25. 25. Applications of Biotechnology<br />Biocatalysts (Enzymes- Stain removers in detergents) <br />Biopolymers (Bioplastic – PHB from plants, Bacteria)<br />
  26. 26. Applications of Biotechnology<br />Pollution control – Bacteria to clean pollution<br />Polluted/Waste water treatment (Bacterial Filters, Membrane Filters)<br />Medical/Health benefits<br />Cheaper and safer hormones (Insulin by bacteria, Growth hormones), vaccines (HbV vaccine), drugs (Blood clotting factor)<br />
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  28. 28. Limitations of Biotechnology<br />Genetic engineered food may cause Health Problems (Bt cotton, corn , brinjal etc. have a toxic gene of bacteria)<br />Pest resistant Bt plants also kill useful insects like butter flies, bees along with disease causing pest insects – ecological imbalance.<br />Human cloning – Socially, Ethically Right?<br />
  29. 29. THANK YOU<br />I want to touch the FUTURE . Therefore, I have become a TEACHER. - Christa McAuliff<br /><br />08382 – 222458 ®<br />