02 Vaccination

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02 Vaccination

  1. 1. Active and Passive Immunity• Active immunity – immunity gained when an antigen enters the body (occurs during the course of an infection) – Natural active immunity: lymphocytes activated by antigens on the surface of pathogens that have invaded the body – Artificial active immunity (vaccination): immune response activated artificially by injecting antigens into the body or taking them by mouth ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. • Passive immunity – immunity gained without an immune response – Artificial passive immunity: antibodies come from another person who has encountered the antigen (e.g. tetanus) – Natural passive immunity: antibodies come from mother across placenta or in breast milk ALBIO9700/2006JK
  3. 3. Vaccination• A preparation containing antigenic material - a whole live microorganism/dead one/a harmless version (attenuated organism)/a harmless form of a toxin (toxoid)/preparation of surface antigens)• Given either by injection into vein or muscle, or taken orally ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4. Problems with vaccines• Poor response – Herd immunity• Antigenic variation – Antigenic drift: minor changes in the viral antigen – Antigenic shift: major changes in antigen structure• Antigenic concealment ALBIO9700/2006JK

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