02 Organelles in animal and plant cells


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02 Organelles in animal and plant cells

  1. 1. Organelles in animal and plant cells ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  3. 3. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4. Nucleolus <ul><li>membrane-less organelle within the nucleus that manufactures ribosomes, the cell's protein-producing structures </li></ul><ul><li>after a cell divides, a nucleolus is formed when chromosomes are brought together into nucleolar organizing regions </li></ul><ul><li>during cell division, the nucleolus disappears </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  5. 5. Nucleus <ul><li>a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative center of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>two major functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division) </li></ul></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  6. 6. Nuclear Envelope <ul><li>double-layered membrane that encloses the contents of the nucleus during most of the cell's lifecycle </li></ul><ul><li>appears to connect with the rough endoplasmic reticulum </li></ul><ul><li>perforated with tiny holes called nuclear pores </li></ul><ul><li>these pores regulate the passage of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, permitting some to pass through the membrane, but not others. </li></ul><ul><li>during mitosis, or cell division, the nuclear envelope disintegrates, but reforms as the two cells complete their formation and the chromatin begins to unravel and disperse </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  7. 7. Endoplasmic Reticulum <ul><li>network of sacs that manufactures, processes, and transports chemical compounds for use inside and outside of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>connected to double-layered nuclear envelope, providing a pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  8. 8. Golgi Apparatus <ul><li>the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products </li></ul><ul><li>modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export to the outside of the cell </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  9. 9. Ribosomes <ul><li>tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein </li></ul><ul><li>in eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA </li></ul><ul><li>in prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  10. 10. Mitochondria <ul><li>oblong shaped organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of every eukaryotic cell </li></ul><ul><li>main power generators, converting oxygen and nutrients into energy in animal cells </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  11. 11. Lysosomes <ul><li>main function of these microbodies is digestion </li></ul><ul><li>found in animal cells only </li></ul><ul><li>break down cellular waste products and debris from outside the cell into simple compounds, which are transferred to the cytoplasm as new cell-building materials </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  12. 12. Peroxisomes <ul><li>A major function of the peroxisome is the breakdown of fatty acid molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Contain enzymes that rid the cell of toxic peroxides </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  13. 13. Centrioles <ul><li>self-replicating organelles made up of nine bundles of microtubules and are found only in animal cells </li></ul><ul><li>appear to help in organizing cell division, but aren't essential to the process </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  14. 14. Chloroplasts <ul><li>the most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy </li></ul><ul><li>this process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  15. 15. Vacuole <ul><li>Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  16. 16. Plasma Membrane <ul><li>In prokaryotes, the membrane is the inner layer of protection surrounded by a rigid cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Eukaryotic animal cells have only the membrane to contain and protect their contents </li></ul><ul><li>These membranes also regulate the passage of molecules in and out of the cells </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  17. 17. Cilia and Flagella <ul><li>for single-celled eukaryotes, cilia and flagella are essential for the locomotion of individual organisms </li></ul><ul><li>in multicellular organisms, cilia function to move fluid or materials past an immobile cell as well as moving a cell or group of cells </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  18. 18. Cell Wall <ul><li>plant cells have a rigid wall surrounding the plasma membrane </li></ul><ul><li>serves a variety of functions, from protecting the cell to regulating the life cycle of the plant organism </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK