DEPT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
Vitamins are organic substances that are essential for the health, growth,
Each vitamin performs for special function, hence, one cannot replace or
act for another.
Except vitamin-D, the human body cannot synthesize others.
They are classed as,
1) Fat soluble vs. water soluble vitamins
2) Vitamin B complex and
3) Vitamin like substances
Fat soluble vitamins Water soluble vitamins
Vitamin A Biotin
Vitamin D Choline
Vitamin E Folic acid
Vitamin K Niacin
Vitamin B6(pyridoxine; pyridoxal;
Vitamin B12 (cobalamines)
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid;
The fat soluble vitamins contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen,
whereas the water soluble B vitamins contains these three elements
Vitamins originates primarily in plant tissues which includes vegetable
products (cabbage, carrot, orange, lemon, corn or maize oil, corn or
maize bran…) and microorganisms (brewers yeast, bakers yeast…).
Animals – fish, ox or calf liver oil.
Vitamin c and d present only animal tissues.
Fat soluble – via faces
Water soluble – primarily via urine, limited amount present in faces.
Cobalamies composed of a central cobalt atom coordinated
by a porphyrin-like group called corrin.
The cobalamin biosynthesis by pseudomonas denitrificans
require external supply of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidozole (5,6-
DBI) and cobalt salt.
cobamide also from propionibacterium shermanii.
Extraction – lyses of cell
Unstable cobalamine become more stable when treated
with cyanide(KCN), forms cyanocobalamine.
Adsorption method using alumina and silanized silica gel
Then followed by elution with water-alcohol or water-
Production by fermentation of Ashbya gossypii
Production upto 10-15 g/L after 10 days.
Broth at 121 c/hratph4.5–riboflavinsolubilised
Harvesting and isolation
the 2-keto-L-gulonic acid is isolated from the harvested broth
at the end of second stage fermentation by treating with
the subsequent concentration to crystallization yields 90% 2-
Vitamin E natural occurrence:
In oils of soybean, corn, sunflower, rapeseed & olive.
In green vegetables of spinach, parsely, cabbage, leek &
Bio engineered plants like Tobacco and Arabidopsis for over
expression of Tocols.
Bio engineered plants like soybean, rape seed and maize
kernels for altered tocol content.
γ-tocopherol to α-tocopherol by γ-TMT, this achieved up
Min level of vitamin E (100 IU/day) to prevent coronary
For degenerative diseases, diabetes, prostate cancer, teeth
problems, vision problems vitamins mostly suggested.
Higher intake of water soluble vitamins cause
There is sneither optional nor substitute for any vitamin.