Scaffolding Innovation Through Human-Centred Design


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Presentation for innovation track at European Academy of Design Conference 2013 about potential for human-centred design artefacts to scaffold innovation within organisational contexts.

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Scaffolding Innovation Through Human-Centred Design

  1. 1. SCAFFOLDING INNOVATION THROUGH HUMAN-CENTRED DESIGN By Jacqueline Wechsler University of Technology Sydney, Australia Jax@jaxinteractive.comWednesday, 17 April 13
  2. 2. Post-graduate Research Masters of Information Technology (Research) University of Technology Sydney, Australia., 17 April 13
  3. 3. Professional ExperienceWednesday, 17 April 13
  4. 4. HCD & Artefacts • Human-centred Design used by : service designers, UX designers, ‘design thinkers’, strategic designers, interaction designers etc. • Artefact Examples : proto-types, personas, journey maps, process-flows, wire-frames, service blue-prints, conceptual designs etc., 17 April 13
  5. 5. Innovation & Artefacts : Literature • Collaboration - ‘design language’ (e.g. Sanders 1999), ‘Boundary Objects’ (Star & Greismeyer 1999), ‘Mediating Artefacts’ (Engestrom 1999) • Communicate design knowledge • Probes / things to think and talk with (e.g. Gaver 1998, Goldschmidt 2003). • Conscription & persuasion devices: (e.g. Henderson 1999, Wenger 2000)., 17 April 13
  6. 6. Innovation Work is Social Innovation requires collaboration & advocacy from multiple actors within the organisation across different organisational boundaries (e.g. Fagerberg, Mowery & Nelson 2005). Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D.C., & Nelson, R.R (eds.) (2005), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Wednesday, 17 April 13
  7. 7. Scaffold noun “A temporary platform, either supported from below or suspended from above, on which workers sit or stand when performing tasks at heights above the ground.” SRC: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 2000, 17 April 13
  8. 8. Innovation Radical “a change of frame (‘doing what we did not do before’)” vs. Incremental “improvements within a given frame of solutions” Norman, D. A., & Verganti, R. 2012, "Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research Versus Technology and Meaning Change” Norman___Verganti__Design_Research___Innovation-18_Mar_2012.pdfWednesday, 17 April 13
  9. 9. 96% of radical innovation initiatives fail - Larry Keeley, President of the Doblin Group Norman, D. A., & Verganti, R. 2012, "Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research Versus Technology and Meaning Change” Norman___Verganti__Design_Research___Innovation-18_Mar_2012.pdfWednesday, 17 April 13
  10. 10. Innovation Radical “a change of frame (‘doing what we did not do before’)” vs. Incremental “improvements within a given frame of solutions” Norman, D. A., & Verganti, R. 2012, "Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research Versus Technology and Meaning Change” Norman___Verganti__Design_Research___Innovation-18_Mar_2012.pdfWednesday, 17 April 13
  11. 11. Design-led Innovation In 2011 the European Commission launched the European Design Innovation Initiative (EDII) stated: ““by 2020, design is a fully acknowledged, well-known, well-recognised element of innovation policy across Europe” Peter Droll, European Commission, speaking at the SEE conference, 29 March 2011, 17 April 13
  12. 12. Todays’ Designer The ‘objects of design’ (Dorst 2008) are changing (e.g. Buchanan 2009). The new role for the designer: “…connectors and facilitators, as quality producers, as visualisers and visionaries, as future builders (or co-producers). Designers as promoters of new business models. Designers as catalysers of change” (Manzini, 2009, p. 11)., 17 April 13
  13. 13. New Types of Design Knowledge “to stimulate and steer strategic discussions, to be applied in a variety of specific projects, to help understand what we are doing or could do. This knowledge has to be explicit (to be clearly expressed by whoever produces it), discussable (to permit the exchange of opinions among many interested interlocutors), transferrable (to be applicable by other designers) and possible to accumulate (to form a reservoir of design knowledge that could be the starting point for producing further knowledge by other researchers).” Manzini, E. 2009, "New Design Knowledge.”, Design Studies, vol. 30, no. 1 , p. 12.Wednesday, 17 April 13
  14. 14. Design PracticeWednesday, 17 April 13
  15. 15. Design Practice is social e.g. Bucciarelli, L.L. (1994), Designing Engineers, MIT Press Cambridge MA, USAWednesday, 17 April 13
  16. 16. Design Practice requires the production of artefactsWednesday, 17 April 13
  17. 17. Design Practice is Contextual CONTEXT Project Context Designers Experience ARTEFACTS CONTECT Audiences Organisational ContextWednesday, 17 April 13
  18. 18. An Opportunity? Can designers help to scaffold innovation within organisations through the delivery of consciously crafted design representations which can be used by staff members to enable and facilitate service improvement initiatives?Wednesday, 17 April 13
  19. 19. Key Considerations • Considering the context surrounding innovation initiatives • Making deliverables use-ful for othersWednesday, 17 April 13
  20. 20. The Case-Study Project Project Brief: Improve the ordering capabilities for a group of B2B customers through the online channel using human-centred design approaches. Organisation: • Large Australian organisation with 40,000 staff • Strategic drive to be more customer-centred • Heavily silo-ed with distributed work-force My Role: Lead designer on project on a 6 month contractWednesday, 17 April 13
  21. 21. Research Data CONTEXTUAL FACTORSParticipant Observations Qualitative Interviews> Rationale for design decisions > Other practitioners> Influential factors ARTEFACTS > Recipients of the artefacts The different sources of data used within this inquiryWednesday, 17 April 13
  22. 22. Activity Theory Model of an Activity System (adapted from Engestrom’s model in Engestrom, Y. 1999, Perspectives on Activity Theory, p.30)Wednesday, 17 April 13
  23. 23. Artefacts as mediating objects Considering the artefacts in relationship to inter-linked Activity Systems i.e. > individual > project > team > organisational activity systemsWednesday, 17 April 13
  24. 24. Artefact Examples (www) Video Prototype Research Videos Customer Journey Maps (Animated wire-frames) Christian [ Strategic IT Partner ] PRODUCT TYPE “As IT partners we need different processes to simplex (traditional) complex (data) traditional dealers...there is money in data solutions.” SPECIFIC PRODUCTS Age: 32 TIPT, TID, Next IP, T-Suite, Video Conferencing, MDN, Role: Data Sales Specialist at Futureproof IT NCS, Cloud Residence: Westend, Brisbane. TELSTRA SYSTEMS Family Status: Single no kids (lives with girl-friend) eForm, DTP, Retail Live, Netcracker, All4Biz., CustData “Customers [via AEs] come to us Goals Pain-points with a problem...we design and + Increase sales (and increased commissions) + Ordering process is too manual and time-consuming implement a solution to solve it.”” + Growth of his own client portfolios + Inefficient pre-sales support + Provide value and expertise for his clients + Manual management of opportunities (lack of a CRM ) “We have excellent technical + Awareness of new IT/comms technologies/products + Payment of commissions is poor knowledge...we train Telstra more + Lack of access to customer information than they train us.” Needs: + Getting blamed by Telstra for issues when it is their fault + Information, training and collatoral about Telstra products + Passwords to Retail Live expire every 30 days “ICT channel managers really hold + Streamlined ordering and provisioning of products things together as there is a real + Visibility of order related information (tracking, status etc.) lack of support from within Telstra.” + A way to easily manage commissions Work Responsibilities + Better pre-sales support / CRM capabilities + Recommend and sell data solutions “The majority of my sales leads + Easy collaboration with Telstra and other vendors to manage + Technical design of data solutions come from Telstra...We see Telstra projects + Management of integration of multiple products from as a partner not as a competitor.” multiple vendors utilising Telstra infrastructure Telstra Touch Points + Stay up to date about new products + Telstra AEs and Project Managers + Keep up to date with trends in IT business solutions Employer: Futureproof IT + ICT Channel Manager + Distributors (utilsed for provisioning) Futureproof are a strategic IT partner How Telstra Can Support Him Better + Telstra Technical Communication Consultants (TCC) based in Brisbane. They partner with + Marketing collateral and training for new products pro- + Retail Live Cisco, Mircrosoft and Dell. They offer @ vided before or at time of product launch clients integrated cloud based busi- Touch-points + CRM tool to help him manage Telstra sales leads ness solutions providing network, (customer information, the associated AE, TB /TEG? etc.) infrastructre and IT design expertise. PRE-SALES X X X X + More streamlined and less manual ordering processes Their primary sales leads come from SALES X X X X + Improved commission processes / faster payment Microsoft and Telstra and their clients are mainly assigned medium to en- ORDERING X X X X + Tracking capability for orders + Make it easy to for him to collaborate & manage de- terprise business customers. PROVISIONING X X pendencies with Telstra and other vendors for his orders COMMISSIONS X X X Personas Info-graphicsWednesday, 17 April 13
  25. 25. Example : Research Videos What? Animated videos showing verbatim quotes gathered from interviews about the experiences of customers with current ordering processes Why? Communicate to the organisation that there was a need for improvement. Use: • Shown to a senior executive mid-way through the project in order to get engagement from him and his staff. • Shown to the CEO and executive members as a persuasive device to gain buy-in for the initiative. • Shown to new call centre staff to increase empathy for the customer.Wednesday, 17 April 13
  26. 26. Example : Info-graphics What? An info-graphic was delivered which illustrated: • the number of in-coming support calls that came to the call centre that serviced these customers, • information about the financial revenue this group brought into the organisation per product, and • the number of members of this group per state. Why? • To illustrate the importance of this customer group in relation to revenue generation as well as the potential to reduce order related enquiry to the call-centre. • Change internal perception : Internally these customers were not valued by staff as they were seen as competitors to the internal sales team. Use: • This info-graphic was shared by some managers to their staff via email (PDF format). • It was used within a road-show to sales staff that manage these customers.Wednesday, 17 April 13
  27. 27. The artefacts were described as: Re: [i.e. videos & info-graphic] “succinct”, “visually memorable”, “fresh “It’s almost viral in a sense because you and accessible” and can be “used by any have a snack sized asset you can pass stakeholder at any level” around to people. So in terms of changing the culture that’s a very nice way to do it.” ARTEFACTS : STAFF PERCEPTION “they help to bring not only awareness but to create interest and it may help to ! “Using these kinds of artefects and influence stakeholders in the right way.” frameworks could possibly help keep the customers and the users front of mind…”Wednesday, 17 April 13
  28. 28. Artefact Qualities • Useful - effective boundary objects / mediating artefacts • Accessible - understandable by broad audiences • Shareable - easy to share and re-use • Relevant - relevant to broad audience groups • Communicative - represent current state and illustrate possible improved states • Persuasive - enlist participation & generate interest for the initiative in order to get funding for the initiative.Wednesday, 17 April 13
  29. 29. Scaffolding Innovation It can be advantageous to consider design artefacts as mediating objects that can inform innovation initiatives in various ways.Wednesday, 17 April 13
  30. 30. Scaffolding Innovation • These include; • the provision of models and frameworks for collaboration and conversation between members of different functional groups; • as mechanisms to bring the perspective of the customer into the organisation; • as well as the provision of visualisations that make complex non-tangible systems and services seem more tangible., 17 April 13
  31. 31. Scaffolding Innovation By considering the context in which a design artefect functions, artefects can be crafted by designers to support and scaffold the innovation efforts of individuals and groups within organisational settings., 17 April 13
  32. 32. The Opportunity A real opportunity exists for designers to help facilitate and support innovation within organisational contexts through the delivery of consciously crafted design artefects., 17 April 13
  33. 33. QUESTIONS? twitter: @jacwex, 17 April 13
  34. 34. References Bucciarelli, L.L. (1994), Designing Engineers, MIT Press Cambridge MA, USA. Dorst, C H. (2008), “Design Research: A Revolution-Waiting-To-Happen", Design Studies, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 4-11 Droll, P. (2011), European Commission, speaking at the SEE conference, Retrieved 03 29 2011, from http:// Engeström, Y. (1999), “Innovative learning in work teams: analysing cycles of knowledge creation in practice”, in Enegström, Y., Miettinen, R., Punamäki, R.L., (eds.), Perspectives on Activity Theory, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, USA, pp. 377-406. European Commission (2009), Challenges for EU support to innovation in services - Fostering new markets and jobs through innovation, Commission Staff Working Document, SEC(2009)1195, Fagerberg, J., Mowery, D.C., & Nelson, R.R (eds.) (2005), The Oxford Handbook of Innovation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Houghton Mifflin Company (2000), Fourth Edition, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Company. Updated in 2009.  Manzini, E. (2009), "New Design Knowledge.”, Design Studies, Vol. 30, No. 1 , pp.4-12. Margolin V. (2002). The Politics of the Artificial: Essays on Design and Design Studies, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA. Norman, D. A., & Verganti, R. (2012), "Incremental and Radical Innovation: Design Research Versus Technology and Meaning Change”, Retrieved 05 03 2012, from Norman___Verganti__Design_Research___Innovation-18_Mar_2012.pdf Sanders, E.B.N. (1999), “Design for Experiencing: New Tools” in Overbeeke, C.J. and Hekkert, P. (Eds.), in Proceedings of the First International Conference on Design and Emotion, TU Delft. Sanders, E B N. (2006), "Design Research in 2006." Design Research Quarterly, Vol.1, No. 1, pp 1-8. Star, S.L., and James R Griesemer, J.R., (1989), "Institutional Ecology, Translations and Boundary Objects: Amateurs and Professionals in Berkeleys Museum of Vertebrate Zoology”, Social Studies of Science, vol. 19, no. 3, pp 1907-39.Wednesday, 17 April 13