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Respiratory diseases


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general physiology of respiratory disorders asthma, emphysema, pneumonia.

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Respiratory diseases

  1. 1. Disorders of the respiratory system
  2. 2. Asthma
  3. 3. Asthma • Asthma is a chronic lung disease that obstructs airflow • The obstruction is reversible • It involves difficulty in breathing due to – Inflammation (swelling) – Mucus in the airways – Tightening of muscles around the airways
  4. 4. Asthma • WHO estimates that 235 million people currently suffer from asthma • Asthma is the most common chronic disease among children. WHO
  5. 5. Causes • Inflammation of air passage • Hypersensitivity of afferent glossopharyngeal and vagal ending in larynx & afferent trigeminal endings in nose. • Pulmonary edema & congestion of lungs.
  6. 6. Symptoms • Coughing • Wheezing, a whistling sound • Shortness of breath • Chest tightness • Sneezing & runny nose • Itchy and inflamed eyes
  7. 7. Genetics If one parent has asthma, chances are 1 in 3 that each child will have asthma.
  8. 8. Genetics • If both parents have asthma, 7 in 10 children will have asthma.
  9. 9. Can asthma be cured? • Asthma can be controlled (but not cured) by: – Avoiding triggers or reducing exposure to triggers – Using medication to control symptoms • Medications - generally two types are used – Controller or long-term drugs • Taken to prevent excess production of mucus & to reduce the inflammation and constriction of airway muscles – Rescue or quick-relief drugs • Taken to relax muscles around the airways to improve breathing
  10. 10. PNEUMONIA •Pneumonia is the inflammation of lung tissues, followed by the accumulation of blood cells, fibrin & exudates in the alveoli. Affected part of lung become consolidated.
  11. 11. PNEUMONIA • Pneumonia kills nearly two million children every year in the world under the age of five. • In Pakistan, one in every four children deaths are due to this disease. Daily Times Monday, November 21, 2011
  12. 12. PNEUMONIA Individuals Most at Risk for Pneumonia • Elderly • Those with viral infection • AIDS or immunosuppressed patients • Smokers • Patients with chronic respiratory disease e.g. bronchial asthma.
  13. 13. Causes Pneumonia occurs when bacteria (most commonly Streptococcus pneumoniae), chemical irritants, or viruses get into your lungs. Pneumonia causes the alveoli in the lungs to fill with pus or other liquid. This causes difficulty in breathing.
  14. 14. Symptoms • Fever • Cyanosis (Bluish skin) • Difficulty breathing • Increased pulse • Mucus cough • Delirium(Mental confusion) • Compression of chest & chest pain
  15. 15. Symptoms
  16. 16. Delirium •Confused mental state •Illusions(misunderstanding of stimulus) •Hallucination •Disorientation •Loss of memory •Hyperexcitability (Muscle twitching & cramp)
  17. 17. Treatment To treat Pneumonia a doctor would choose an antibiotic. Mainly based on health, how serious the pneumonia is, and by how old patient is. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic medicine that is sometimes prescribed by doctors. If pneumonia isn’t bad, the infection can be treated at home with oral antibiotics.
  18. 18. EMPHYSEMA
  19. 19. EMPHYSEMA Emphysema is a lung disease that is classified as a COPD (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
  20. 20. Causes There are several things that cause emphysema It can be inherited Prolonged exposure to environmental toxins and...........
  21. 21. Causes The #1 cause is cigarette smoking. 82% of cases are related to smoking
  22. 22. Symptoms • Shortness of breath • Chronic high levels of CO2 in blood and low O2 • Chronic mucus production (chronic bronchitis) • Constant coughing or need to clear the throat • Wheezing • Sleep problems • Heart problems
  23. 23. Treatment • Stop of smoking is the most important and effective treatment. • Medications used to improve breathing include bronchodilators, diuretics, and corticosteroids. • Antibiotics may be prescribed when respiratory infections occur. • Vaccines against the flu and pneumonia are recommended for people with emphysema
  24. 24. References • sema/overview.html • • • m.htm#Emphysema%20Overview • m IMAGES • • BOOKS •Medical Physiology by Jaypee •Medical physiology by Gayton & Hall
  25. 25. Thank You
  26. 26. Questions?