• Asthma is a chronic lung
disease that obstructs airflow
• The obstruction is
• It involves difficulty in
breathing due to
– Inflammation (swelling)
– Mucus in the airways
– Tightening of muscles
around the airways
• WHO estimates that 235 million
people currently suffer from asthma
• Asthma is the most common chronic
disease among children.
• Inflammation of air passage
• Hypersensitivity of afferent
glossopharyngeal and vagal ending in
larynx & afferent trigeminal endings
• Pulmonary edema & congestion of
• Wheezing, a whistling sound
• Shortness of breath
• Chest tightness
• Sneezing & runny nose
• Itchy and inflamed eyes
If one parent has asthma, chances are 1
in 3 that each child will have asthma.
• If both parents have asthma, 7 in
10 children will have asthma.
Can asthma be cured?
• Asthma can be controlled (but not cured) by:
– Avoiding triggers or reducing exposure to triggers
– Using medication to control symptoms
• Medications - generally two types are used
– Controller or long-term drugs
• Taken to prevent excess production of mucus & to reduce
the inflammation and constriction of airway muscles
– Rescue or quick-relief drugs
• Taken to relax muscles around the airways to improve
•Pneumonia is the
inflammation of lung
tissues, followed by the
accumulation of blood
cells, fibrin & exudates in
the alveoli. Affected part
of lung become
• Pneumonia kills nearly two million
children every year in the world
under the age of five.
• In Pakistan, one in every four
children deaths are due to this
Daily Times Monday,
November 21, 2011
Individuals Most at Risk for Pneumonia
• Those with viral infection
• AIDS or immunosuppressed patients
• Patients with chronic respiratory
disease e.g. bronchial asthma.
Pneumonia occurs when bacteria
(most commonly Streptococcus
pneumoniae), chemical irritants, or
viruses get into your lungs.
Pneumonia causes the alveoli in the
lungs to fill with pus or other liquid.
This causes difficulty in breathing.
•Confused mental state
•Illusions(misunderstanding of stimulus)
•Loss of memory
•Hyperexcitability (Muscle twitching &
To treat Pneumonia a doctor would choose
an antibiotic. Mainly based on health, how
serious the pneumonia is, and by how old
Amoxicillin is an antibiotic medicine that is
sometimes prescribed by doctors.
If pneumonia isn’t bad, the infection can be
treated at home with oral antibiotics.
Emphysema is a lung disease
that is classified as a COPD
(Chronic obstructive pulmonary
There are several things that cause
It can be inherited
Prolonged exposure to environmental
The #1 cause is cigarette smoking. 82% of
cases are related to smoking
• Shortness of breath
• Chronic high levels of CO2 in blood and low
• Chronic mucus production (chronic
• Constant coughing or need to clear the
• Sleep problems
• Heart problems
• Stop of smoking is the most important
and effective treatment.
• Medications used to improve breathing
include bronchodilators, diuretics, and
• Antibiotics may be prescribed when
respiratory infections occur.
• Vaccines against the flu and pneumonia
are recommended for people with
•Medical Physiology by Jaypee
•Medical physiology by Gayton & Hall