Efqmd Taward


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Abstract of Doctoral Thesis Javier Ruiz (nominated EFQM thesis award 1996) "Technological Innovation and Quality Management"

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Efqmd Taward

  1. 1. RUIZ J.;"12 Fresh Views on TQM"; European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM), 1995-96. Doctoral Thesis Award.
  2. 2. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION 1 SUMMARY 1. ABSTRACT 2. INTRODUCTION 3. QUALITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION Technological innovation. Concepts of Technology, Science, Innovation and R&D. Patterns of Technological Change. Classification and evolution of technology in R&D. Quality Management: A historical review. Quality in R&D activities. Profile of technological research centres in the Basque Country as business organizations. 4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN RESEARCH CENTRES Some quality-related experiences in R&D centres. Bibliographic review. Description of experiences of Quality Management in research centres. Quality in R&D: The opinion of experts. Quality Survey in R&D centres: Procedure, statistical analysis and results. 5. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) Historical review. General description of the method. A New Customer- Centered Culture. Design and development process and Concurrent Engineering. Introduction to QFD. Phases in the use of QFD. Schools of QFD. Different approaches to QFD. American Supplier Institute and GOAL/QPC schools (Fukuhara and Akao approaches to QFD). A new synthesis of QFD methodology. Quality Deployment. Technology Deployment. Reliability Deployment. Cost Deployment. ISO 9000 Deployment. QFD in the service process. Forgotten Effects Theory and QFD. Summary of the use of QFD in Japan and USA. 6. OTHER QUALITY TECHNIQUES IN R&D Quality in Design and Development of new products. Scheduling and objectives of the design process. Assessment, inspection and validation of design. Design of Experiments and Taguchi Methods. Global Modelling.
  3. 3. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION 2 Reliability Techniques. Concepts of Reliability. Patterns of Failure. Reliability in the life cycle. Reliability Prediction. Reliability Engineering methods. Value Analysis. Concepts in Value Analysis. Functional Analysis. Workplan in the Value Analysis process. Quality Management and Planning Tools. Affinity Diagram. Interrelationship Digraph. Tree Diagram. Matrix Diagram. Prioritization Matrices. Process Decision Program Chart (PDPC). Activity Network Diagram.Policy Deployment. Introduction to Policy Deployment. Activities during Policy Deployment. Phases of Policy Deployment. Tools in Policy Deployment. Comparative analysis of quality tools in R&D activities. 7. PATTERNS OF QUALITY IN TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT Quality Management Standards in R&D activities. Main items for Quality in Technology Management. R&D Projects. R&D Portfolio: Planning and Control. Strategic Management of Technology. New QFD applications to improve Quality in Strategic Technology Management. Milestones to progress in the European Total Quality Model (EFQM) in R&D Centres. Total Quality Management in tecnological centres in the Basque Country. 8. CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY _ _ _ _ _ 1. ABSTRACT This study looks at the problem of quality in technological innovation. It includes reflections on the improvement and assurance of quality in R&D activities, aiming towards total quality management in them when they are performed in support of other processes and when they are in themselves the core of a business (research centres working under contract). After a description of the background and state of the art of the concepts of "Technological Innovation" and "Quality Management" and a look at the relationship between the two, the study considers outstanding experiences of quality management programmes carried out in R&D teams. Bibliographic information is set against interviews with experts and surveys sent to 477 R&D
  4. 4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION 3 centres in 29 countries. This has enabled us to learn what main approaches and methods are adopted by research groups to improve R&D operations. After an analysis of empirical data the most relevant quality techniques which might potentially be applied to R&D activities have been reviewed with a view to progress in the EFQM (European quality management model). Special emphasis has been put on Quality Function Deployment (QFD), a method for which new matrices are proposed, along with a preferential path for its application. Comparative analysis of the quality tools studied enables them to be located within quality improvement processes and allows the conditions for their application to R&D activities to be clarified. The study ends with a proposal of basic guidelines to reinforce continuous improvement and progress towards the EFQM. Clearly differentiated stages are proposed, as is the use of QFD matrices aimed at improving R&D portfolio management from a strategic technology viewpoint. 2. INTRODUCTION The application of quality management concepts and methods to R&D activities is still in its infancy, though it is awakening growing interest, especially at R&D centres belonging to industrial groups. R&D failures are frequent, and although this may seem an inherent risk in research when trial and error is accepted as one of the main axioms of such activities, several studies have indicated that many of these failures could be avoided if there were more control over R&D activities. The core of this thesis can be summed up as follows: If an adequate quality management model exists in the R&D group/centre, if that model is operative during the selection, planning and development of R&D work, and if suitable total quality management methods and tools are used, then the probability of efficient management of technology and the successful conclusion of each scheme (in terms of usability, meeting of deadlines and cost) will be greater.
  5. 5. This investigation is theoretical and empirical in nature, being based on actual observations at various stages of work. During its development attempts were made to identify those elements which might lead R&D teams & centres to progress along the lines of the EFQM. Figure 1 represents this model, indicating the parts of the study which develop or apply the said elements. 3. QUALITY AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION The main body of this thesis begins with chapter 3, including a description of the background and state-of-the-art of the concepts on which this work is centered: quality and technological innovation. Besides their etymological and historical meanings, the relationship between them is explored. Section 3.1 discusses the meaning of the terms: "technology", "science", "innovation" and "research and development (R&D)". A large bibliographic discussion is included. The next section deals with an analogous study through the more restricted scope of quality management. After an analysis of its definitions and interpretations, there is a historical overview of the countries which have contributed to the origin of the so called quality revolution of the century: Japan, USA and Europe. In the same way, the ideas of the most significant authors in the field of the development of the quality management concept are presented and discussed. We synthesize these last two concepts by looking at the interconnection of significance and keys of quality in R&D activities. This can be considered as an introduction to the main body of this work, which will be thoroughly developed in the
  6. 6. following chapters. The key role played by leadership and technological innovation applied to the fast development of new products in the current international competitive scenario is justified here. In this context, in which the processes of innovation have undergone a deep transformation and acceleration, adequate R&D management is fundamental within present organizations, especially industrial ones. And this is why this study has been carried out: failures or costs due to lack of quality in R&D. The section ends with an overview of the responses by research centres in different countries to the management of quality in R&D activities. Since the intention is to apply the conclusions of this study to the technological centres of the Basque Autonomous Community, Chapter 3 includes a list of these centres. After introducing some of the main milestones in their origin and present configuration, some data about these centres is presented to give an idea of their organizational dimension. 4. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN RESEARCH CENTRES Chapter 4 begins with a description of the most notable experiences of quality management programs at R&D centres. A short bibliographic description of the sources used is given in the beginning of the text, so as to classify and structure the different approaches adopted by these centres. In the description of the experiences published or observed in the R&D centres, an effort has been made to structure information so that it is easy to find. A summary of the opinion of several experts about the meaning of quality in R&D activities is presented in the next section. Such interviews were one of the first steps, together with the bibliographic review, towards identifying the main problems and aspects of quality in R&D faced by technological research and development groups. The interviews also helped to review, debug and optimize a questionnaire about
  7. 7. "Quality in R&D" sent by mail to 477 Technological Research and Development Centres in 29 countries (see Figure 2). How this survey was done and the results and conclusions obtained from it, have been discussed. In the appendixes included at the end of the chapter there is a list of the centres to which the questionnaire was sent and the centres which answered it, as well as several tables and charts showing the statistical results worked out from the survey. 5. QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD) Chapter 5 starts with a description of several quality methods which must be considered when improving quality in R&D environments. At the beginning there is an indepth study of quality function deployment, QFD, which lies at the centre of the Japanese response to quality problems in design and R&D during the 60's. Some historical background to the method and a general description are presented and compared with other quality techniques used in the process of the development of new products. It is worth mentioning a discussion about a "Customer-centered Culture Model", which is an interesting reference framework for understanding the significance of QFD. Figure 3 shows such a model. Here innovation is seen as a necessary prolongation of quality. Or quality must be reviewed from the standpoint of innovation, and enter into that environment when the needs and wishes of customers are looked at, to identify new ways of achieving the results which the customer is seeking in a more complete, more efficient or less costly manner.
  8. 8. Before an indepth review of quality function deployment, we present the main schools and authors which have developed and applied this method. This is done by analyzing the contributions of the main sources which have disseminated QFD in the United States: the American Supplier Institute (ASI) and the Quality and Productivity Centre (GOAL/QPC). The study tries to link their formulations to the Japanese authors considered as two of the parents of the method: Fukuhara and Akao. This search through the different sources is what allows us to attempt a reformulation of the method - for which there is as yet little bibliography - which makes it easier to understand, while keeping its original intuitions and characteristic features. Akao's four deployment scheme has been adopted: quality, technology, reliability and cost deployment. As a new feature, we propose a further deployment which we call ISO 9000, which facilitates the design of customer oriented quality systems, taking advantage of QFD. After that, we describe the way QFD is being applied to the design of service activities, which presents some differentiating features in comparison with the design of products. To end the reformulation of the method, an investigation of "forgotten effects" is proposed, which would increase the reliability of the method when applied to complex problems.
  9. 9. The final section of the chapter presents an assessment of the application of the method based on the available studies. The first of them is based on a survey carried out in 1986 by the QFD Research Committee of the Japan Society for Quality Control JSQC), chaired by Akao. The companies that took part in the survey belonged to the Japan Union of Scientists and Engineers (JUSE). The second reference study, whose nature is more qualitative, was published in 1991 by Abbie Griffin, lecturer in Marketing and Production Management at the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. It deals with 35 QFD projects carried out by nine American companies. The point is to identify the common elements and divergences between both studies, so as to facilitate a more realistic approach to QFD methodology. 6. OTHER QUALITY TECHNIQUES IN R&D Chapter 6 continues with a descriptive analysis of some other methods and techniques which must be borne in mind if one wants to manage quality efficiently in R&D projects nowadays. The techniques described were selected on the basis of two criteria: firstly the interest or relevance of the technique in the design and development of new products. This circumstance would require a thorough study of the technique to be applied to R&D activities. In this respect, it is worth mentioning techniques such as the Design of Experiments and methods of Robust Design, Reliability Techniques and Value Analysis. Secondly, bearing in mind the leadership and experience of Japan in the development of quality improvement methods, it seems necessary to consider some new planning tools and methods. They are now introducing new factors and dimensions to quality management in organizations involved in manufacture, design, research and services. These tools and methods include: New Quality Management and Planning Tools, and Policy Deployment. So, the significance of quality is reviewed throughout the process of design and development of new products, as this is the main reference point in any R&D activity. This review is carried out from two points of view: design and objectives planning, and design evaluation and verification; always of course keeping an eye on the minimum design control requirements established by the industrial community as represented by Standard ISO 9001.
  10. 10. After that, we include an overview of Experimental Design techniques and the methods used to obtain designs insensitive to "noise" factors, to which Genichi Taguchi has given a significant boost, although his contributions are not without their critics. A description is given of the reliability techniques which, starting from basic concepts, tries to analyze the role played by these techniques in the design and development of products. Value Analysis, strongly settled in many design departments of western companies, is reviewed. The next section is devoted to the description of the so called New Quality Management and Planning Tools, as opposed to the Quality Control Basic Tools, the mastery and intensive use of which by Japanese bosses and operators is associated with the excellent results of quality of conformance in their products. The new, more conceptual and qualitative tools, were formulated as a coherent whole in Japan in the early 80's as a consequence of the increasing complexity and abstraction of work processes. They were also intended for use by management teams to solve planning and management problems. Among the techniques studied, the last one is concerned with strategic planning rather than design processes. Policy Deployment, a planning system which tries to lead the whole organization coherently towards a few objectives, previously identified as strategic, is also studied. However, it still is not widely disseminated in western countries. This chapter ends with a short analysis comparing the techniques studied above, in an attempt to evaluate their relevance to quality in R&D activities. 7. PATTERNS OF QUALITY IN TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT Chapter 7 brings this study to an end and summarizes some notes that, together with the data and methods studied in the preceding chapters, allow milestones to progress in the European Model for Total Quality Management (EFQM) in technological research centres to be sketched out. It begins with a study of quality assurance and management standards for R&D activities. Specifically the applicability of the Standard ISO 9001 is analyzed, as well as the guide prepared by the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC) to adapt the requirements of that Standard to architectural and engineering organizations. The Quality Assurance Guidelines for Research and Development worked out by the Energy and Environmental Quality Division of the ASQC are also analyzed; and the
  11. 11. first draft version of Standard ANSI Z1.13, which includes quality system guidelines for basic research activities is reviewed. The objective of a comparative analysis of these documents is to find common points representing a sort of agreement when considering quality systems in research centres. In the following sections some proposals for the application of quality methods are formulated, emphasizing Quality Function Deployment (QFD) in R&D activities, in relation to context conditions (technology and market evaluation, selection and management), as well as the internal aspects of each R&D project (objectives and input data requirements control, project management, use of other techniques,...). As a new feature a further deployment called ISO 9000 is proposed to facilitate the design of customer oriented quality systems using the QFD method (see Figure 5). At the end of the chapter, there are some suggestions concerning the design of quality systems in the technologycal centres of the Basque Country. 8. CONCLUSIONS A large part of the many failures in R&D operations could be avoided if there were more control over them. This is a powerful reason for paying attention to the development of technology and quality management for R&D. The implementation of the EFQM (European total quality management model) in R&D groups may be
  12. 12. considered as one of the main strategies for improving the effectiveness of such operations, whose importance is ever greater for innovation in today's businesses. Comparison of the three research methods used (bibliographical study, expert interviews & questionnaires with statistical analysis), significant coincidence has been found in regard to the dominant quality approach in European R&D centres. The adoption of quality management and assurance systems in line with the requirements of ISO 9000 has been shown to be a priority. The number of surveys on US centres used is smaller, which prevents conclusions from being drawn, but bibliographical information reveals that there are advanced experiences of the application of the principles, methods and techniques of TQM (total quality management) in R&D environments. This implies the prior assimilation of less formalized quality assurance systems adapted to R&D processes. QFD (Quality Function Deployment) is a method developed in Japan, where it has been applied since the 1970s to deal with the difficulties which firms have in transferring quality concepts to R&D, marketing and design phases. This method was not disseminated in the West until the mid 80s, but it has proved highly useful in two critical aspects of business management: the creation and consolidation of a customer-centred culture and the process of designing and developing new products. A reformulation of the method is proposed here which involves on the one hand recovering the original deployments of Akao for quality, reliability, technology and cost and on the other a preferential matrix path inspired by the simple, direct character of Fukuhara, using the inventory of matrices drawn up by King. Three new matrices are proposed, constituting what could be known as ISO 9000 deployment. This can be used to design quality systems in accordance with this standard based on customer requirements and aimed at improving critical processes. A descriptive analysis has been made of other methods and techniques which must be taken into account at present if R&D project quality is to be managed efficiently. These include Experimental Design, Reliability Techniques and Value Analysis. The study also includes new techniques for quality management and planning and Policy Deployment. Their advantages and the conditions for their application have been analyzed in the context of the EFQM. The concept of "strategic management of technology or management or technological
  13. 13. resources of business" is of vital importance. This comprises a process of integration of technology into company strategies. Among the tools and instruments for ad hoc analysis which can be used to apply and execute the different stages of the process of strategic management of technology, eight new QFD matrices are proposed, along with some reference landmarks for progress in the EFQM Model. BIBLIOGRAPHY 231 bibliographical references are cited and consulted, using the quote-note method to facilitate the search for and deeper consultation of the information which is of most interest to each reader. In this way the work will serve as a basis for future research.