Jazz [Lenidejournal Com]


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Jazz [Lenidejournal Com]

  1. 1. JAZZ A Historical Outline
  2. 2. What is Jazz? <ul><li>“ Man, man, if you gotta ask, you’ll never know.” </li></ul><ul><li>Louis Armstrong </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>“When they study our civilization two thousand years from now, there will only be three things that American will be known for: the Constitution, baseball and jazz music.” </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald Early </li></ul>
  4. 4. Roots of JAZZ <ul><li>West Africa contributed drumming improvisation and complex rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Europe contributed folk tunes and hymns </li></ul><ul><li>America contributed a breeding ground for these things to mix. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Jazz is the first genre of music to solely culminate in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>All other forms prior to jazz came from (Western) Europe, or were formed somewhere else. </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz=American Musical Art Form! </li></ul>Roots of JAZZ
  6. 6. <ul><li>Early records are categorized as “race records.” </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz helped breech the race barrier </li></ul><ul><li>First integrated ensembles: 1930’s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AUDIENCES TOO!!! </li></ul></ul>Roots of JAZZ
  7. 7. Timeline of JAZZ <ul><li>1890’s-1910’s Jazz is born; Ragtime </li></ul><ul><li>1910’s-1920’s Blues </li></ul><ul><li>1920’s-1930’s Dixieland </li></ul><ul><li>1930’s-1940’s Sing/Big Band </li></ul><ul><li>1940’s Bebop </li></ul><ul><li>1940’s-1950’s Cool </li></ul><ul><li>1960’s Free Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>1960’s-1980’s Fusion (Jazz/Rock) </li></ul><ul><li>1980’s-Current Rock, R&B, Funk, Modern Jazz </li></ul>
  8. 8. Characteristics of JAZZ <ul><li>Born in New Orleans, Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>Performed in brothels, clubs, streets, river boats, speak easys… </li></ul><ul><li>Syncopated (off-beat) rhythms and swing (lilting) subdivision. </li></ul><ul><li>Encompassed the ‘aleatoric’ or improvisational nature of negro spirituals. </li></ul><ul><li>Three different components make this genre distinct: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmony </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvisation </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. JAZZ Ragtime (late 1890’s-early 1900’s) <ul><li>Grew out of African American dance styles </li></ul><ul><li>Formal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Generally performed on piano </li></ul><ul><li>Artist: Scott Joplin ( Maple Leaf Rag , The Entertainer ) </li></ul><ul><li>Maple Leaf Rag was an instant hit. It sold 75,000 copies. </li></ul>
  10. 10. JAZZ Blues (1910’s-1920’s) <ul><li>Blues, by definition: a lament, bemoaning poverty, social injustice, fatigue, or the loss of something (L-U-V). </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in South among enslaved African Americans and spirituals and carried through in oral tradition to their descendants. </li></ul><ul><li>Standard form: 12-Bar Blues…3, 4-bar phrases. </li></ul>
  11. 11. JAZZ Blues (1910’s-1920’s) <ul><li>Lyric Topics include: sexual references, betrayal, desertion and love. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists: Bessie Smith, B.B. King, Muddy Waters (McKinley Morganfield), Gertrude “Ma” Rainey, Howlin’ Wolf (Chester Arthur Burnett) </li></ul>
  12. 12. JAZZ Dixieland (1920’s-1930’s) <ul><li>Began in New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>Typical (small) groups included: clarinet, trumpet, trombone, tuba (bass), piano, banjo and drums </li></ul><ul><li>Variations were typical </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristic sound derived from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of instruments (timbre) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Melody instruments improvising at the same time (polyphony) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. JAZZ Dixieland (1920’s-1930’s) <ul><li>Marches, Church Hymns, Negro Spirituals, ragtime, 12-bar blues, Boogie Woogie, all part of the ‘play-list” </li></ul><ul><li>Scat singing-vocal style of improvisation using ‘nonsense’ syllables. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Louis Armstrong known for starting and using this style…story says he was recording and dropped his music, could not remember the lyrics, so he ‘improvised’ by scatting. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. JAZZ Dixieland (1920’s-1930’s) <ul><li>Artists: Louis “Satchmo” Armstrong (vocals, trumpet), Joe “King” Oliver, Ferdinand “Jelly Roll” Morton, Leon “Bix” Beiderbecke, James Fletcher Henderson, Preservation Hall Ensemble. </li></ul>
  15. 15. JAZZ Swing (Late 1930’s-1940’s) <ul><li>AKA “Big Band” or “Dance Band” </li></ul><ul><li>Largest group so far, c. 15 members (hence ‘big’ band) </li></ul><ul><li>Considered POPULAR MUSIC. </li></ul><ul><li>Sections now instead of individual instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saxophone Section (clarinet often included) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trumpet Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trombone Section </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythm Section (Piano, Bass, Guitar, Drums) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. JAZZ Swing (Late 1930’s-1940’s) <ul><li>Saxophone: fairly new invention (from the sarussaphone) </li></ul><ul><li>More people playing now, composers/arrangers wrote solos and relied less on improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Unison playing normal (rhythms and/or pitches) </li></ul><ul><li>Most ‘charts’ were based on 12-bar blues </li></ul><ul><li>Many groups entertained during WWII </li></ul>
  17. 17. JAZZ Swing (Late 1930’s-1940’s) <ul><li>Artists: Edward Kennedy “DUKE” Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Count Basie, Glenn Miller, Tommy Dorsey, Jimmy Dorsey, Louis Prima, Cab Calloway, Artie Shaw, Gene Krupa, Benny Goodman, Stan Kenton, The Commodores, The Airmen of Note, NC Jazz Repertory Orchestra, Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra (Wynton Marsalis), Harry Connick, Jr., Bob Mintzer </li></ul>
  18. 18. JAZZ Bebop (1940’s) <ul><li>More complex music for smaller groups </li></ul><ul><li>Basic instruments and format same as big band </li></ul><ul><li>Back to improvisation, less unison </li></ul><ul><li>Meant for listening, not dancing (more irregular time/style changes). </li></ul><ul><li>More sophisticated harmonies </li></ul>
  19. 19. JAZZ Bebop (1940’s) <ul><li>Rhythm section responsible for keeping time AND as melody instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Artists: Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonius Monk (Rocky Mount, NC), Charles Mingus, Bud Powell, Miles Davis (early), Thad Jones, Sonny Stitt, Sonny Rollins, Art Pepper, Erroll Garner, Oscar Peterson, Max Roach </li></ul>
  20. 20. JAZZ Cool (Late 1940’s-1950’s) <ul><li>AKA “West Coast Jazz” </li></ul><ul><li>More calm and relaxed than bebop, hence ‘cool’ </li></ul><ul><li>Longer compositions than bebop </li></ul><ul><li>More written arrangements, less improvisation </li></ul><ul><li>Flute, cello and horn often included </li></ul><ul><li>Very experimental </li></ul><ul><li>Artists: Lester Young, Miles Davis (middle), Chet Baker, Gerry Mulligan </li></ul>
  21. 21. JAZZ Free (1960s) <ul><li>Break from traditional jazz forms, melodies, harmonies and chords </li></ul><ul><li>Very reflective of times </li></ul><ul><li>Very irregular in form </li></ul><ul><li>Coincides with chance/aleatoric music of John Cage </li></ul><ul><li>Very much a recording music, rather than a sit-and-listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Artists: Miles Davis (late), Ornette Coleman, John Coltrane (High Point, NC) </li></ul>
  22. 22. JAZZ Fusion (late 1960’s-1980’s) <ul><li>Became “Funk” </li></ul><ul><li>Combines jazz and the evolving Rock and Roll style (which came from jazz)…took over as ‘popular music’ </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional instruments and synthesizers, electric piano, guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Afro-Cuban and Latin Percussion </li></ul><ul><li>Artists: Miles Davis (late), Earth, Wind & Fire, Weather Report, Chicago, Tower of Power </li></ul>