SAVE URDaughters and Sisters Empower Enrich Educate A K2 Vista Project sodasblog.wordpress.com
SODaS MissionReclaiming the Dignity, Beauty and Honor ofGirls and Women in Building Healthy Societies by Combating child marriage, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), human trafficking, mutilation, exploitation, violence, and any crime against humanity
Problems1. Domestic Violence2. Rape3. Pornography4. Prostitution5. Sex Trafficking/Tourism6. Female Infanticide/Feticide7. Honor Killing/Dowry Death8. Child/Forced marriage9. Female Genital Mutilation10. Forced Sterilization11. Low self-esteem and perception of beauty/attractiveness
ProblemIn most patriarchal societies (esp. in developing countries) women are considered property
Exploitation is irrespective ofclass, ethnic or religions group.
A Silent War on women• Many laws, little enforcement• Religious institutions apathetic or complicit
Condition of Women• Homeless – A majority of the 100 million homeless are women and children.• Refugees – 80% of world’s refugees are women.• General Poverty – Women receive 10% of the world’s income, 1% of world’s property and make up 70% of the world’s poor.
Condition of Women• Education – 60% of the children that are kept from school are girls. – 66% of the world’s 880 million illiterate adults are women.• Maternal Mortality – 600,000 die each year worldwide through causes related to pregnancy and childbirth.
Domestic Violence“Dried fish and women are both better after they are beaten.” Korean Proverb
Domestic Violence• In the USA 1 in 4 women are abused by a husband or boyfriend every nine seconds.
Types of Violence• Sexual Abuse – Coercive sex – Violent sex – Forcing one’s wife into sex with other men• Psychological Abuse – Demeaning language – Intimidation – Harassment – Smothering the person – Emotional abandonment
Types of Violence (Cont.)• Economic Abuse – Not providing for a wife’s needs – Leaching off of a wife’s income – Bankrupting the family’s finances – Creating a spirit of economic dependency• Physical Abuse
RapeOne in five will be victims of rape in their lifetime.
Rape Assault on the Soul The violence of rape is not merely an assault on the physical being, but on the internal nature of the woman; it is an attack on her soul, her personhood, her dignity, and her identity.
Rape, a Weapon of WarMilitias in East andCentral Africa are gang-raping and abductinggirls as young as 8 andwomen as old as80, systematicallykilling, torturing orusing them as sexslaves,…
South African Myth: Sex With a Virgin Prevents AIDS
Pornography• In US a $10-14B industry• Hard Core – Is violent and “sick” – Sadism-masochism, torture – It is about the power over and control of women• Soft Core – Pin-ups, Playboy, locker room jokes, but still harmful
ProstitutionAs many as 400,000 prostituted children in US 45,000 to 50,000 women & children trafficked into US every year, often for purpose of prostitution (Spangenberg, 2001) More than 600,000 child prostitutes working in US & Canada--produces $5 billion worldwide Flowers, R. B. (2001). The sex trade industry’s worldwide exploitation of children. Annals, AAPSS, 575, p. 147-157.
Prostitution: Facts1. Average age of entry into prostitution is between 13-14 years. • Most of these 13-14 year old girls are recruited or coerced into prostitution. • The age of entry into prostitution is decreasing.2. Incest is “boot camp” for prostitution. • Estimates of the prevalence of incest in the personal histories of prostitutes range from 65% to 90%. • 85% of prostitutes report a history of sexual abuse in childhood. • 70% report being victims of incest.
Prostitution: Facts3. Pimps target girls that are vulnerable, naïve, lonely, homeless, rebellious. • Once recruited, or purchased, prostitutes are kept in bondage to the pimp by verbal and physical abuse. • 85% of prostitutes report being raped by their pimps.4. Why do prostitutes stay with pimps? • Humans bond emotionally with their keepers in captivity. • Pimps isolate prostitutes to make them totally dependent upon them. • Pimps use force to hold prostitutes captive.
Prostitution: Policy• If we view prostitution as violence against women, then it makes no sense to legalize or decriminalize it.• Decriminalizing or legalizing prostitution would legitimate practices that are human rights violations, and in any other context would be illegal.• In 1999, the Swedish Parliament put into effect a law that criminalizes the buying of sexual services, but not the selling of sexual services.• Social reformists consider the Swedish law as a humane alternative because it places the criminal burden on the “perpetrator” rather than the “victim.”
A Modern Slave Trade• Prostitution not only is inherently harmful and dehumanizing to women and children; it also fuels the growth of trafficking in persons, or modern-day slavery.• Women and girls, worldwide, are lured to foreign nations with promises of jobs. Then, they are forced into prostitution.• “With globalization and cheap transportation, you can move people easier and quicker than guns or drugs. And you can use them over and over and over again. You don’t just sell them once and call it a day. It’s very, very profitable.” Joy Zarembka of the Campaign for Migrant Domestic Workers Rights
WHAT IS HUMAN TRAFFICKING?Human Trafficking is defined astherecruitment, harbouring, transportation, provision or obtaining of aperson for commercial sex, labouror services through the use offorce, fraud, or coercion, for thepurpose of subjecting that personto involuntaryservitudes, peonage, debtbondage, or slavery.This includes Sextrafficking, bondageFor work and Bride trafficking
Girls & women treated as commodity exchanged, bought or sold
Trafficking: the numbers• It is estimated that 27,000,000 slaves exist in our world today• Each year, 800,000 people are trafficked across international borders• 80% female and 50% children• Money made from human trafficking rivals that made from drug trafficking and illegal arms trade for the top criminal activity• Trafficking is a $10 billion a year enterprise• There are more human slaves today than when slavery was legal in the world
Causes of trafficking• Poverty especially among women worldwide• Inadequate education• Inadequate employment• Erosion of traditional family values• Racial discrimination, racism and intolerance• Media, new technologies, pornography• Discrimination of women, male attitudes
Causes of trafficking contd.• Economic disparities within countries• Globalization and economic liberalization• Civil and military conflicts/military bases• Transnational crime and weak law enforcement• Corruption by police, law enforcers, officials• Expanding commercial sex industry
Trafficking Statistics• 200,000 women and girls are trafficked in the Balkans each year.• In 1993, the Thai Embassy in Tokyo, Japan estimated that there were between 80,000 - 100,000 Thai women working in the sex industry in Japan.• Asian women are sold for $16,000 to brothels in the USA.• 10,000 women from the former Soviet Union are forced into prostitution in Israel.
Three Methods of Traffickers• Fraud – offered jobs, in some “romantic” place, as maids, in childcare, in travel or entertainment• Violence – Force to break the woman’s will. She may be beaten, raped or “imprisoned” to bring her to a point of compliance• Intimidation – Her travel documents may be taken from her, so she is in her new country illegally. Threats of injury or death to family at home
Bride Trafficking• China’s one child policy• now 111 million men who will not be able to find a wife• Thriving trade in bride trafficking – Within China – Outside China: North Korea, Vietnam
Baby Body Parts• East European women brought to Italy• Impregnated• Held in bondage until baby is born• Baby body parts harvested• Sold to private clinics in Israel and Turkey
Sex Touring Companies• Packaged tours• Airfare• Ground Transportation• Hotels• Tour “Companion”
Why Does It Happen?• Older men, from the USA and Europe looking for companionship in exotic places• Seeking to avoid social stigma of using prostitutes in their own countries• Looking for young girls, expecting to avoid sexually transmitted disease
Acid Attack To disfigure, to punish, to make undesirable(Victim Khadijah Age 25 yrsAge and name of boy unknown )
Female Feticide & InfanticideAborting female fetus or new born girl
India - Abortion Clinic Advertisement “… it is better to spend $38 now to terminate a female fetus [baby] than $3,800 later on her dowry.”
China– One child policy– 1 million abandoned a year– 111 million more men than women
India– Between 2-5 million female babies are aborted each year in India– Dowry and marriage costs overwhelm poor– Infant girls are buried or starved to death
Dowry DeathIn India there are more than 5,000 women killed each year because of inadequate dowries.
Dowry Death• Bride fails to bring a high enough dowry• Groom or his family want to gain another dowry so they kill the first wife• Drive to suicide• Kitchen accidents
Child/Forced Marriage• Without consent, not fully informed or under duress, coercion.• Poverty major cause, and girls considered burden.• Marriage to older man can bring financial or social benefit• Sometimes marriage is a transaction done to settle debts• Not mature, physically and emotionally, and not able to negotiate contraception that leads to early pregnancy• Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS, as older husbands may be infected• Best way to address through education and poverty alleviation.
Prevalence of Child Marriage – Top 20 Countries Girls Married Before Age 18 (%) 1 Niger (1998) 76 2 Chad (2004) 71 3 Bangladesh (2004) 68 4 Mali (2001) 65 5 Guinea (1999) 64 6 CAR (1994/95) 57 7 Nepal (2001) 56 8 Mozambique (2003) 55 9 Uganda (2000/01) 54 10 Burkina Faso (2003) 51 11 India (1998/99) 50 12 Ethiopia (2000) 49 13 Liberia (1986) 48 13 Yemen (1997) 48 15 Cameroon (2004) 47 16 Eritrea (2002) 47 17 Malawi (2000) 46 18 Nicaragua (2001) 43 18 Nigeria (2003) 43 20 Zambia (2001/02) 42
CHILD MARRIAGESSoon to be wed Faiz Mohammed, 40 and Ghulam Haider, 11in rural village of Afghanistan (Photo Stephanie Sinclair)
CHILD BRIDESaid Mohammed 55, and Roshan Kasem, 8, engaged. Father of the brideSays he does not want to give his daughter away at such a young age, but heCannot afford to keep her.
CHILD BRIDESMohammed Fazal, 45 with his 2 wives Majabin 13, and Zalyha 29 in Afghanitan.Majabin’s father offered her up as a settlement for gambling debt after playing cards.
CHILD BRIDERaja,16, and 15-year-old child bride Sintu look on at the Balaji temple in a Rajasthanvillage as part of centuries-old custom that betroths toddlers and forces children to getmarried .
Regional Variation -- Ethiopia 48% of CM in Ethiopia occurs in the north: Amhara 90% Tigray 82% Affar 77% Ben-Gumz 75%
Regional Variation - India 5 states in India have highest percentages of child marriage: Madhya Pradesh: 73% Andhhra Pradesh: 71% Rajasthan: 68% Bihar: 67% Uttar Pradesh: 64%
Regional Variation – Nigeria 71% of CM in Nigeria occurs in the north: 83% in North West 78% in North East
Why is FGM practiced?• Tradition• Perceived religious requirement – (not actually required in any religion)• Marriage eligibility• Rite of passage into womanhood• Geography and neighbors’ practices• Mark of status• Lack of knowledge about medical consequences
Why are Female Genital Mutilations Performed?• Primarily done to ensure abstinence before marriage, and fidelity after marriage.• If women get no pleasure from intercourse, they will not have sex when unnecessary for procreation or marital relations.• Done under the blanket of “Tradition”
Family Honor• Because a woman is the property of men, she is a reflection on the family’s honor.• A young girl is taught to remain a virgin until she is married.• They are taught about eib which means shame and sharaf which means honor.• “ A woman is like a cup; if someone drinks from it, no one will want it… A woman is like a sheet of glass; once it is broken it can never be fixed.”
Triggers for Honor Killing• Adultery - marital infidelity• Fornication – pre-marital sex• Perception of immoral behavior• Flirting• Victim of rape• Refusal to submit to an arranged marriage• Seeking a divorce from a cruel husband• Execution: Shot, Stoned, Poisoned, Beheaded, Stabbed, Strangled
Forced Sterilization• In Vietnam, more than 31,000 women underwent quinacrine sterilizations between 1989 and 1993.• The Peruvian government began a public health sterilization program in 1995. 1997 saw 110,000 women sterilized in the program.• Between 1965-1971, one million women in Brazil had been sterilized.• In the 1970’s it is estimated that “25-40% of American Indian women were sterilized without their informed consent…”
Low self-esteem and beauty• Today’s standards of attractiveness and beauty are defined by popular culture and media
Every Nation, Community, Tribe has different forms of divine beauty, we just have to recognize them.
Muslim Problems, Islamic Solutions• Muslims living in the West or East are not immune to societies problems.• Many if not all the issues highlighted exist either openly or behind closed doors in Muslim communities and Countries• Sometimes Religion is misused to allow wrong doing and in other cases cultural baggage
Domestic Violence Men are the maintainers of women because Allah has made some ofthem to excel others and because they spend out of their property; thegood women are therefore obedient, guarding the unseen as Allah has guarded; and (as to) those on whose part you fear desertion, admonish them, and leave them alone in the sleeping-places and beat them; then if they obey you, do not seek a way against them; surely Allah is High, Great. (Quran 4:34)
Domestic Violence• Spousal abuse happens in Muslim families• “Beat them” been used by some literally and other Quranic interpretations use “turn away from them,” “scourge them” or “tap them.”• Popular usage has been beat them.• However, scholar say this is symbolic than literal.• There is no sanction of violence against women.
Quran admonishes kindness• O you who believe! it is not lawful for you that you should take women as heritage against (their) will, and do not straiten them in order that you may take part of what you have given them, unless they are guilty of manifest indecency, and treat them kindly; then if you hate them, it may be that you dislike a thing while Allah has placed abundant good in it
Prophet admonishes kindness• “The best among you is the one who treats his family best.” Hadith• Prophet Muhammad never beat his wives• He admonished in his sermons against violence against women.• Once the prophet, was asked about obligations of husbands toward their wives.• His answer was: “Feed her when you eat, and provide her clothing when you provide yourself. Neither hit her on the face nor use impolite language when addressing her”
Honor Killing• Killing of women and girls for alleged sexual misbehavior, including terminating an arranged marriage, having sex outside of marriage or bringing dishonor to family or community has no place in Islam, although it takes place in Muslim communities and countries, as well as non Muslim people.• Tribal justice, or vigilantism are seeds of chaos and go against the principles and laws of Islam.
Rape, Adultery and Stoning• As with other major faiths including Judaism and Christianity Islam views adultery as a major sin.• However, to be convicted of adultery, requires 4 witnesses, as this is a serious offense and can lead to slander and more. For four people to have seen penetration take place is like the odds of a meteor hitting earth.
Rape, Adultery and Stoning• Quran warns against false Accusations• “And those who accuse free women then do not bring four witnesses, flog them, (giving) eighty stripes, and do not admit any evidence from them ever; and these it is that are the transgressors” Quran 24:4• Unfortunately in many Muslim tribal or patriarchal societies, this rule is turned on its head in the case of rape, where woman has to produce 4 witnesses, and if not she alone can be accused of adultery.
FGM: Female Genital Mutilation• There is no reference to FGM in Quran• Only circumcision of males is encouraged• FGM is a pre-Islamic tradition, practiced primarily in north and central Africa• Nothing in Islam encourages mutilation of female genitals• Many Islamic Scholars joined against boycott of FGM and most African states have banned practice• In 2005 Islamic Conference in Rabat, Morocco leaders from 50 Muslim nations called FGM un-Islamic and pledged to crack down on it.
Child/Forced Marriage• To protect chastity Muslims are encouraged to marry young.• However, there is nothing in Islamic and Prophetic tradition that allows forced marriage and/or child marriage• Most cited example of Prophets marriage to Aisha. Based on detailed research (listed in references), Aisha’s marriage to the Prophet was consummated when she was an adult.• The marriage contract is only valid if it is accepted voluntarily.
Child/Forced Marriage• The tradition of arranged marriages although still very common is shifting to “love marriages” where potential spouses meet and decide if they want to get married.• However, in Muslim countries Islamic laws are violated• Especially in tribal societies, and/or impoverished families there are examples of young girls being given away in marriage to settle debts, pay off gambling loans, or given in marriage to rich sheikhs as well as being sold or auctioned into sex trafficking rings
Quran and Dignity• We have confirmed dignity on the children of Adam and favored them specially above many of those We have created.”(Quran 17:70)• This dignity is neither earned nor based on righteous conduct, it is innate.• Idea of human dignity is combined with Quran’s stand on justice and equity; and never let the hatred of anyone lead into sin of deviating from Justice (5:8)• Ref: Reading the Quran by Ziauddin Sardar
“Injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere.” Martin Luther King Jr.
(We have to work together) to seek a common solution to a commonproblem posed by a common enemy Malcolm X
References All images are copyright of respective holders. Most content is adapted from many sources. Following book Whatmatters is a great resource identifying social issues A K2 Vista Project For more resources http://sodasblog.wordpress.com/resources/ Example US Muslim Organizations dealing with Domestic Violence http://projectsakinah.org/ http://www.asknisa.org/ http://www.worldchanging.com/archives/007785.htmlhttp://www.isna.net/Resources/articles/domestic-violence/Ending-Domestic-Violence-in-Muslim-Families.aspx http://www.peacefulfamilies.org/LocalMuslimOrgs.html