Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Muslim Cinema




                Javed Mohammed
                Writer-Producer
                Writer-
                k...
Agenda

 Overview
 Turkish Cinema
 Egyptian & Arab Cinema
 Cinemas of Sub-Saharan Africa
 Iranian Cinema
 Pakistani Cinema...
What is Muslim vs Islamic Cinema?
There is no definition so here is one.




 “Muslim Cinema is a film
  movement by or ab...
Muslim Cinema: Hard to
describe
As the 1 Billion+
Muslims are spread
across 48 Muslim
majority countries plus
With hundred...
Muslim Cinema
 Definitely some
 countries have a
 stronger culture,
 affinity or presence wrt
 films
 For others film
 pre...
Turkish Cinema
Turkish Cinema

 Turkish film
 industry is known
 as Yeşilçam
 (quot;Green Pinequot;) in
 the same way that
 Hollywood ref...
Starting Off

 Turkey got the same start as the West to cinema in the
 20th century.
 With the defeat of the Ottoman calip...
A Paradigm shift
 TV and Video caused
 next major shift and
 popularity of those
 mediums in 70s and
 economic crisis caus...
Last decade of Revival
 Since 1995 situation has
 improved.
 After year 2000, ticket
 sales reached the 20
 millions
 Numb...
Time line of Turkish Cinema
 1914 First film made by a Turk in Turkey.

 1922 Kemal Film (Seded Brothers) is the first fea...
Turkish film maker: Nuri Bilge Ceylan

  Ceylan's films
  have often been
  described as
  high art
  Minimalist
  movies ...
Egyptian Cinema
Overview

 1930 and 1936, various
 small studios produced at
 least 44 feature films. In
 1936, Studio Misr,
 emerged as t...
A little history

  1966, the Egyptian film industry nationalized: Stifled creativity

  1970s, Egyptian films struck a ba...
Egyptian Cinema Today

 In 1997,16 films
 Revival in Egyptian Cinema
 There are Film schools and now
 over 40 directors
 I...
Egyptian film maker : Youssef Chahine

  Prolific Egyptian film
  director
  Born 1926 and active in
  the Egyptian film i...
Arab Cinema

 Besides Egypt,
 smaller cinema
 in Syria,
 Morocco, and
 Algeria
Syrian-American Film
maker:Moustapha Akkad

 Attended UCLA and USC
 film schools
 Made Epic films
 Mohammad, Messenger of
...
Cinemas of Sub-Saharan
Africa
Cinemas of Sub-Saharan
Africa
 Cinema in Africa
 been there for over
 85 years
 Strong colonial
 influence, Colonial
 Film...
Some History
 Effort started with
 minimal financial and
 technical resources
 and amateur actors
 Following Sembene’s
 le...
Senegalese film maker:
Sembene Ousmane
 quot;Father of African film”
 Director, producer and
 writer.
 Themes: history of
...
Cinema of Iran
Cinema of Iran


 Persians have long history of
 literature and mythology
 Early Persian/Iranian cinema
 made its debut at...
Cinema of Iran

 1930s and 40s slow progress
 with influence from English films
 Shah of Iran did not particularly
 suppor...
Post-revolutionary Iranian
cinema
 Style: Long (slow)
 takes, Frugal ordinary
 lives, No graphic
 content
 Minimalist and ...
Post-revolutionary Iranian
cinema
 Follow strong Muslim
 edicts about not
 showing
     Women who
     expose their
     b...
Post-revolutionary Iranian
cinema
 Pre-Production
 permit validates
 script
 Post-Production
 checks film and
 gives diffe...
The big picture
 In spite of
 censorship Iran
 has contributed to
 world cinema with
 strong directors
 Abbas Kiarostami
 ...
The big picture
 Approx 130 films
 screened per year
 Common themes
 are revolution (and
 its after effects), the
 Iran-Ir...
Iran New Wave
 1960s, art films with
 highly political and
 philosophical tones
 and poetic language.
 New Wave are Abbas
...
Festivals
 The Fajr Film Festival
 has taken place since
 1983 and is a major
 festival .
 successful in making
 policies ...
Iranian Film maker: Majid
Majidi
 Writer, Producer and
 Director

 As of 2004 Majidi only
 Iranian director
 nominated for...
Cinema of Pakistan
Cinema of Pakistan
 Pakistan gained
 independence in
 1947.
 In the divide a lot
 of the talent,
 skilled workers
 (and eq...
Cinema of Pakistan
 Made films in Urdu
 the national
 language but also in
 dialects of Punjabi
 (largest), Bengali,
 Pash...
Golden age (1959–1969)

 The '60s decade is often
 cited as being the golden
 age of cinema in Pakistan.

 In 1962, film a...
The Decline starts (Seventies)
 In 1971 war with India, East Pakistan lost
 and becomes independent Bangladesh.
 Dhaka (Be...
Downfall (Eighties) and
Collapse (Nineties)

 Output dropped from 98
 films in 1979 (42 Urdu), to
 58 films (26 Urdu) in 1...
Revival (2003–present)
 In 2003 Young film makers
 demonstrated that with
 limited resources they can
 produce quality fil...
Shoaib Mansoor

 Written, produced
 and directed hit TV
 shows
 Directed “Khuda
 Ke Liye”
 Only film to be
 released in
 P...
Muslim-Minority Films

 Muslims are
 sizable minorities
 in many countries
 In India over 13%
 Muslim
 In France 9%
 They ...
Muslim-Minority Films
 In Bollywood
 (India) Mughal-e-
 Azam an Epic set
 in the Moghul
 empire was
 directed, by K. Asif
...
Muslim-Minority Films
 Indigènes: How
 French army treated
 North African soldiers
 by Rachid Bouchareb
 French director o...
An all-American film

 Syriana by
 Stephen Gaghan
 American director
 Plot: A politically-
 charged epic about
 what Weste...
Conclusion
 Cinema in the
 Muslim world is
 diverse.
 The major
 cinemas include
 Turkish,
 Egyptian & Arab
 Cinema, Sub-
...
Conclusion
 Each Cinema
 has gone
 through its birth,
 rise and golden-
 age, decline,
 and now revival.
 Search, Watch
 a...
References

 WikiPedia
 The Web
 The Oxford History of World
 Cinema
 Asian Cinema: A Field Guide by
 Tom Vick

 Contempor...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Muslim Cinema

8,780 views

Published on

Muslim Cinema is the third presentation in the series about Muslims and Film. It covers the history and state of Cinema in Turkey, Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, and Sub-Saharan Africa as well as those films made by or about Muslims in other countries.

Published in: Education
  • Thank you to all of you for your kind words and hope it educates, benefits or inspires anyone out there in the big wide world.
    javed
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • What a great presentation!
    Thank you for sharing your hard work and talent.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Muslim Cinema

  1. 1. Muslim Cinema Javed Mohammed Writer-Producer Writer- k2film@live.com Muslims and Media Part 3 Changing the world one story at a time Copyright 2009
  2. 2. Agenda Overview Turkish Cinema Egyptian & Arab Cinema Cinemas of Sub-Saharan Africa Iranian Cinema Pakistani Cinema French-Algerian Cinema
  3. 3. What is Muslim vs Islamic Cinema? There is no definition so here is one. “Muslim Cinema is a film movement by or about Muslims.” Javed Mohammed “Islamic Cinema is film that conforms to Islamic laws, customs and values.” Javed Mohammed
  4. 4. Muslim Cinema: Hard to describe As the 1 Billion+ Muslims are spread across 48 Muslim majority countries plus With hundreds of dialects and languages From Morocco to Indonesia Other than faith there is no common theme, or narrative that can describe Muslim Cinema
  5. 5. Muslim Cinema Definitely some countries have a stronger culture, affinity or presence wrt films For others film presents a moral issue. Film has images and sounds that are many times graphic, show nudity, sex, violence, vulgar language, sensual music all which oppose the beliefs and values of the Islamic faith.
  6. 6. Turkish Cinema
  7. 7. Turkish Cinema Turkish film industry is known as Yeşilçam (quot;Green Pinequot;) in the same way that Hollywood refers to American film.
  8. 8. Starting Off Turkey got the same start as the West to cinema in the 20th century. With the defeat of the Ottoman caliphate, Ataturk moved a country from Islam to Secular rule. 1896–1945 Film production sporadic. Averaged one film per year. However Film production wasn't continuous until around the 1950s A couple of companies then dominated the scene and addressed population-dense and profitable cities such as Istanbul and Izmir Strong import presence from the USA, France, Italy and Germany After WW2 major shift, 49 films made in 1952 In 1960s, Turkey became the 5th biggest film producer reached the 300 films mark at start of 70s.
  9. 9. A Paradigm shift TV and Video caused next major shift and popularity of those mediums in 70s and economic crisis caused film production to free fall. Ticket sales, dropped in 80s and 90s from 90M in 1966 to 11M in 1990 Number of theaters fell 2000 theatres in 1966 to 290 in 1990 In 1990s the average number of films produced fell to 10-15 films some not making it to the theatres.
  10. 10. Last decade of Revival Since 1995 situation has improved. After year 2000, ticket sales reached the 20 millions Number of theatres increased to over 500 nation-wide. Turkish films attract millions of spectators and top the blockbuster-lists, often surpassing foreign films in terms of ticket sales. Today there is no film industry per se, but individual projects whose distribution is handled by foreign companies
  11. 11. Time line of Turkish Cinema 1914 First film made by a Turk in Turkey. 1922 Kemal Film (Seded Brothers) is the first feature film production company in Turkey. 1928-1941 Ipek Films (Ipekci Brothers) monopolizes Turkish film production. 1964 The first Antalya Film Festival awards its first quot;Golden Orangequot; for best film to Gurbet Kuslari (Birds of Nostalgia) directed by Halit Refig. Susuz yaz (Dry Summer) wins Best Film at the Berlin Film Festival. 1982 Yol shares the Palme d'Or at Cannes (with Missing by Costa Gravas). 2003 Uzak (Distant) wins Grand Prize and Best Actor at Cannes. 2007 (April) 25th International Istanbul Film Festival
  12. 12. Turkish film maker: Nuri Bilge Ceylan Ceylan's films have often been described as high art Minimalist movies with an extremely low budget Won 18 awards for Uzak (Distant)
  13. 13. Egyptian Cinema
  14. 14. Overview 1930 and 1936, various small studios produced at least 44 feature films. In 1936, Studio Misr, emerged as the leading studio for 3 decades 1940s & 50s Golden age of Arab cinema based out of Cairo Popular films with heroes and happy endings Major transition from silent era of 1920s to sound. 3/4s of Arab films since 1908 are Egyptian Cairo is famous for International Film Festival
  15. 15. A little history 1966, the Egyptian film industry nationalized: Stifled creativity 1970s, Egyptian films struck a balance between politics, entertainment, and audience appeal. 1970s and 1980s Egyptian film industry in decline. Formula movies Decline from 100 films per year at peak to ~12/year in 1995 1997 small comedy revival with quot;Ismailia Rayeh Gayy“ Rest of 1990s Status quo remains with little support from government and low budget, low production value films. A few small hits, but Western and other Bollywood films have greater impact.
  16. 16. Egyptian Cinema Today In 1997,16 films Revival in Egyptian Cinema There are Film schools and now over 40 directors In 2007 risen to 40 films and box office reaches $50M American movies comparatively earned $10M
  17. 17. Egyptian film maker : Youssef Chahine Prolific Egyptian film director Born 1926 and active in the Egyptian film industry since 1950. Launched career of actor Omar Sharif Won many awards including Lifetime award at Cannes Made many films including the epic Al Nasser Salah Ad-Din (The Victorious Saladin) - 1963
  18. 18. Arab Cinema Besides Egypt, smaller cinema in Syria, Morocco, and Algeria
  19. 19. Syrian-American Film maker:Moustapha Akkad Attended UCLA and USC film schools Made Epic films Mohammad, Messenger of God and Lion of the Desert, Plus for Western audiences commercially successful Halloween series
  20. 20. Cinemas of Sub-Saharan Africa
  21. 21. Cinemas of Sub-Saharan Africa Cinema in Africa been there for over 85 years Strong colonial influence, Colonial Film Units (CFU) Early 1960s indigenous cinema starts to appear
  22. 22. Some History Effort started with minimal financial and technical resources and amateur actors Following Sembene’s lead other Senegales directors followed. Spread to Niger, Cameroon, Mali, Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Government of France has provided aid to help film production (however price is control and censorship)
  23. 23. Senegalese film maker: Sembene Ousmane quot;Father of African film” Director, producer and writer. Themes: history of colonialism, the failings of religion, the critique of the new African bourgeoisie, and the strength of African women. 2004 feature Moolaadé, won awards at the Cannes Film Festival explored subject of female genital mutilation.
  24. 24. Cinema of Iran
  25. 25. Cinema of Iran Persians have long history of literature and mythology Early Persian/Iranian cinema made its debut at start of the 20th century. Got off to a slow start first film school in 1925 and by 1930s just 15 theaters in Tehran
  26. 26. Cinema of Iran 1930s and 40s slow progress with influence from English films Shah of Iran did not particularly support film industry But by 1960s 25 films/year and by 1970 65/year. Mainly melodrama and thrillers In 1965 a new genre of popular film: the tragic action drama
  27. 27. Post-revolutionary Iranian cinema Style: Long (slow) takes, Frugal ordinary lives, No graphic content Minimalist and Neo- Relalist, Art Cinema Little melodrama. Some Popular cinema too for broader audiences. Heavy censorship
  28. 28. Post-revolutionary Iranian cinema Follow strong Muslim edicts about not showing Women who expose their bodies (except hands and face) Dressed in revealing clothes Any physical contact (including kissing) between men and women Vulgar or Sensual or Sexual dialogue Negative portrayal of state, police, army etc. Foreign music
  29. 29. Post-revolutionary Iranian cinema Pre-Production permit validates script Post-Production checks film and gives different ratings allowing full PR, peak viewing or no PR, limited viewing, to banned.
  30. 30. The big picture In spite of censorship Iran has contributed to world cinema with strong directors Abbas Kiarostami won the Palme d'Or at the Cannes Film Festival for “Taste of Cherry” in 1997. Persian films have been nominated for Oscars and won awards at Berlin and Venice film festivals
  31. 31. The big picture Approx 130 films screened per year Common themes are revolution (and its after effects), the Iran-Iraq war, social problems Western films are shown but only ones that are classics and ones that have been censored/edited. The Government also funds ethnic cinema, eg Kurdistan, Afghan and other areas where Iran has influence .
  32. 32. Iran New Wave 1960s, art films with highly political and philosophical tones and poetic language. New Wave are Abbas Kiarostami, Jafar Panahi, Majid Majidi, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, Tahmineh Milani, Samira Makhmalbaf, and many more. Strong intellectual and political movements Strong influence of Italian Neorealism Baran by Majid Majidi
  33. 33. Festivals The Fajr Film Festival has taken place since 1983 and is a major festival . successful in making policies and setting examples for the future of Iranian cinema. In 2005, the festival added competitions for Asian as well as spiritual films. The top prize is called Crystal Simorgh
  34. 34. Iranian Film maker: Majid Majidi Writer, Producer and Director As of 2004 Majidi only Iranian director nominated for an Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film with the film Children of Heaven in 1998. Other award winning films include Baran, The Color of Paradise
  35. 35. Cinema of Pakistan
  36. 36. Cinema of Pakistan Pakistan gained independence in 1947. In the divide a lot of the talent, skilled workers (and equipment) left for Bombay from (1947-58) Still had 5 Studios in Lahore, Karachi and Dhaka (in East Pakistan)
  37. 37. Cinema of Pakistan Made films in Urdu the national language but also in dialects of Punjabi (largest), Bengali, Pashto (smaller), Balochi and Sindhi. Local films and films from India were shown in Pakistan till 1952 Most films non- political Pakistan’s film industry always been over shadowed by neighbor India and Bollywood.
  38. 38. Golden age (1959–1969) The '60s decade is often cited as being the golden age of cinema in Pakistan. In 1962, film aka Martyr, pronounced the Palestine issue on the silver screen and became an instant hit. Some talent left for overseas In 1965, war between India and Pakistan, all Indian films completely banned Waheed Murad stepped in as top talent becoming one of the top talents in the Pakistani film industry
  39. 39. The Decline starts (Seventies) In 1971 war with India, East Pakistan lost and becomes independent Bangladesh. Dhaka (Bengal film center and industry lost) Competition from Bollywood, led to further decline Mid-Seventies brings VCR and film piracy 1977, PM Bhutto arrested and General Zia- ul-Haq becomes president on strong wave of Islamic support Islamic laws introduced, cinemas closed and entertainment taxes imposed.
  40. 40. Downfall (Eighties) and Collapse (Nineties) Output dropped from 98 films in 1979 (42 Urdu), to 58 films (26 Urdu) in 1980. A few one-hit wonders eg In 1979 Punjabi cult classic Maula Jatt. Growing censorship policies. Punjabi films overshadow Urdu cinema. By the early '90s, the annual output dropped to around 40 films, all produced by a single studio Production falls to 32 films in 2003 Film studios decline preferring short-plays, and TV dramas for cable TV
  41. 41. Revival (2003–present) In 2003 Young film makers demonstrated that with limited resources they can produce quality films In 2005 pressure to lift ban on Bollywood films in Pakistan. Mughal-e-Azam re-released in India and shown in Pakistan Geo TV backs effort “Revival of Pakistani Cinema” In 2007 large budget film Khuda Ke Liye a controversial film that addresses fundamentalism, war on terror, forced marriage and other issues becomes block buster film in Pakistan and is shown in India (after a four decade ban.)
  42. 42. Shoaib Mansoor Written, produced and directed hit TV shows Directed “Khuda Ke Liye” Only film to be released in Pakistan and India Joint Venture between Pakistan, India, and US.
  43. 43. Muslim-Minority Films Muslims are sizable minorities in many countries In India over 13% Muslim In France 9% They are in making contributions to cinema
  44. 44. Muslim-Minority Films In Bollywood (India) Mughal-e- Azam an Epic set in the Moghul empire was directed, by K. Asif and starred Dilip Kumar and Madhubala (both Muslims) The film was funded by an Indian company
  45. 45. Muslim-Minority Films Indigènes: How French army treated North African soldiers by Rachid Bouchareb French director of Algerian parentage Plot: During WWII, four North African men enlist in the French army to liberate that country from Nazi oppression, and to fight French discrimination.
  46. 46. An all-American film Syriana by Stephen Gaghan American director Plot: A politically- charged epic about what Western industry, and Intelligence will do in the mid-east to protect their interests.
  47. 47. Conclusion Cinema in the Muslim world is diverse. The major cinemas include Turkish, Egyptian & Arab Cinema, Sub- Saharan Africa, Iranian, Pakistani and “Other” Cinema.
  48. 48. Conclusion Each Cinema has gone through its birth, rise and golden- age, decline, and now revival. Search, Watch and share good Muslim Cinema MyFavoriteReview.com To see other presentations on Islam, Muslims and Film see “From Hollywood to Bollywood” “Muslims and Media” On SlideShare by Javed Mohammed Send any comments to k2film@live.com
  49. 49. References WikiPedia The Web The Oxford History of World Cinema Asian Cinema: A Field Guide by Tom Vick Contemporary World Cinema by Shohini Chaudhuri

×