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  1. 1. Railways and roadways are the two means of transport over the land. Roads can bebuilt in the hilly areas also whereas railway lines cannot be laid easily. Therailways have advantage over the roadways that they can carry a large number ofpassengers and large and heavy loads to long distances. Also journey by train ismore comfortable than by bus.Urban cities came up with importance of railways and railways stations inparticular. Moreover, unlike other industries which become modern over a periodof time, railways changed technology at a much faster scale. It bought distanttowns closer to mainstream cities and helped big time in commerce.Pakistan railway was founded in 1947 after the independence. At the time ofindependence railway has 8,122 km of tracks. Pakistan had very good railwayinfrastructure at that time that was built by Britain. Pakistan railway was runningvery successfully and saving lots of money for the economy. Railway had addedsome new tracks and also started electric powered railway tracks for some areas.Pakistan railway was degrading from last decade but after formation of thisgovernment; railway has stopped completely and now few trains can be seen ontracks. Still railway has more than 80,000 employees. Despite of many bailoutpackages; railway was not able to come out of this disastrous situation. No one isPakistan is serious to restore this national assets as it can work as a life line forPakistan‟s economy.Pakistan Railway is mainly suffering from following problems:· No Government Attention· Shortage of Advanced & efficient locomotives· Mismanagement· Single way railway tracks· Non-availability of latest maintenance techniques· Corruption· Lobbies whose interests clashes with prosperity of railway
  2. 2. Here we will discuss the benefits of using the trains and especially electricpowered trains over the road transport. A train normally having the engine o f2,000 to 2,500 HP can pull 750 ton of load. The train is usually carrying the load of20 trailer and tankers because the trailer and tankers normally seen on road cancarry maximum 37~38 ton of load.The efficiency of railway engines are around 20~30% based on their model andmake while the efficiency of latest power plant ranges from 45% to 50%. Thisshows that if the trains are run on electric power than we can get 15~20% efficientoperation.Now we will calculate the expense for transportation of 750 tons of freight for1,000 km by all three sources. For the transportation of this load, 20 trucks ortankers will be needed that will cover 1.5 km for each liter of diesel. So the total13,333 liter diesel will be consumed that will cost 1.26 Million rupees. The selfpowered engine train that has a 30% efficient engine will cover this journey in20~25 hours and consumes 30,000 kWh of energy. This type of engine produces akWh by consuming 290 gm of fuel that costs 32 rupees. So the total cost of journeywill be 960,000 rupees. Similarly the electric powered train can get this power at45% efficiency and considering the transmission losses of 2%, net efficiency willbe 43%. Secondly the fuel for generation of this power will be furnace oil insteadof diesel that is also cheaper. The power will be produced by 208 gm of fuel at15.6 rupees that will complete the journey in 470,000 rupees.There will a saving of 790,000 rupees as compared to road transport and 490,000rupees as compared to self powered railway engines for every 1,000 km oftransportation. The same figures will also apply to the passenger trains. They canalso generate same amount of saving.There are some other benefits of using the electric Powered trains:· By the reduction of oil consumption, the import bill also reduce· Traffic on roads will reduce that will reduce the accidents· Easy and safe transportation of goods· Earning for the government in shape of profitable railway· Less fuel combustion will produce less pollution
  3. 3. · By the reduction in green houses, Carbon credits can also be claimedFew problems that will need to be managed for making these trains successful:· Analyze that how much of present engines can run on electric power· Need to purchase the new railway engines· Estimate the need of Power Plants needed to run the railway· Identify the location where these plants can be installed to manage minimumtransmission losses· Identify the required capacity of power plant at different locations· Will government be able to install and operate these plants? Otherwise IPPs canbe called for this operation· Make arrangement to control the theft of electricity from the electricity lines· Make arrangement to avoid any electrocution incidents· Can call private train companies that can use the system and provide both freightand passenger services· How to manage the lobbies (tanker mafia) that will never want the railway tothriveFollowing are the some benefits for passengers travelling in train:· Relaxed Journey (Can work / study / enjoy the scenery)· Safety· Security· Can travel at night· Low Cost Transportation
  4. 4. · Meeting with FriendsThere are some other options that can make money for the railway:· Utilization of Land owned by Railway for lease purposes· Develop housing colonies on its barren lands· Building its own hotels & restaurants· Railway has high level hospital in big cities; medical colleges can be made withthese hospital to earn money· Growing of plants along railway tracks that can produce Bio-DieselThe transportation by train is very much used by whole world and it is savingmillions of dollars. Hopefully someday our government will put attention onrestoration of railway.Steam BuffsTake a journey through the legendary Khyber Pass or the TharDesert, the lastvestiges of steam on Pakistan Railways.Charter trains operate through Khyber Passwhile normal trains operations continue through the Thar Desert.For the Khyber Safari, the best time is during winters. Mellow sun shine, breathtaking scenery, the rhythmic chugging of steam locomotive hauling a train up oneof the steepest grades possible on 5-6 track, all make journey an unforgettableexperience. The hospitable Pushtoons in their traditional dresses and followingtheir centuries old customs add to the flavor.For present day Marco Polos who dont mind missing 5-star hotel comforts at theend of the day and enjoy roughing it out, the journey through the Thar Desert willalso be a memorable event.
  5. 5. Railway is cheap way of journey to reach remote areas of a country and mostlyused by poor and middle classes . All over the world fast trains are beingdeveloped to facilitate its passengers and commuters.Unfortunately ,the case is reverse here in Pakistan . Pakistan railway is closingdown trains because it is suffering financial crisis. Pakistan Railway is not the onlydepartment of the country going through financial melt down . PakistanInternational Airlines(PIA) is also suffering financial deficit nut no flights havebeen canceled nor planes being put to side.Federal railway minister Ghulam Ahmed Bilour is dumb on this issue and hissilence speaks volumes about his patriot or traitor nature . When it is the issue ofnaming of NWFP Ghulam Ahmed Bilour jumped into the scene with slogan of anew Bangladesh but when it is matter of Pakistan,man is quiet because its notmatter of his province nor his pocket. Millions are going into his pocket every yearand enjoying government facilities.Same is the attitude of federal government ,the Peoples Party government whoseslogan”Roti,KarpaAurMakan” is shutting down all facilities for the poor of this
  6. 6. country one by one. While tens of ministers continue to get millions every monthwithout any crisis from public tax money and continue to undertake world tours,middle class people are not allowed to travel in his country according to hisincome.This is the shame for Peoples party government which is on road to crush the poorto implement its slogan ,Roti ,KapraaurMakan .When there will be no poor inthe country ,obviously no one will shout for Roti,KapraAurMakanany more.TagsList of Trains•AllamaIqbal Express•BahaudinZakariya Express•Bahawalpur Express•Baluchistan Express•Bolan Mail•Buraq Express•Chiltan Express•Faisalabad Express•Farid Express•Jaffer Express•Karachi Express•Karakoram Express•Khush Hal Khan Khatak Express•Khyber Mail•
  7. 7. Pakistan Express•Rawalpindi Express•Samjhauta Express•Shalimar Express•Sialkot Express•SubakKharam•SubakRaftar•TezgamAccidents•Ghotki train crashBUSINESS RESEARCH REPROT13HOWTOINCREASETHEEFFICENCYOFPAKISTANRAILWAYIn its worst accident in recent years, three passenger trains collided on 13July 2005,derailing 13 carriages and leaving at least 120 dead. TheKarachi Express ran into the back of the Quetta Express while it was stopped ata station near Ghotki, and the TezgamExpress traveling in the opposite directionhit several of the derailed carriages. Accordingto officials, the conductor of theKarachi Express misread a signal.•Super Parcel ExpressOn 21 August 2005, the upcountrySuper Parcels Expressderailed while crossing theMalir Bridge near Landhi in the KarachiDivision. Eight bogies were substantiallydamaged when an axlebroke due to over loading. The rail traffic was suspended for 24hours.All down trains were terminated at Landhi and the rakes and the locosmade theturn around from Landhi.•Mehrabpur train derailment
  8. 8. On 19 December 2007, the train,Karachi Express, an express service from Karachi toLahore, derailed near the town ofMehrabpur in the Sindh province of Pakistan. At around 2:25 a.m.local time, fourteen of the trains sixteen carriages left the tracks, somewas beingmangled by the crash, others simply sliding down an embankment intothewater. Sabotage and terrorism were ruled out as the reason for thecrash, with officials believing a faulty track was the cause of the derailment.Future DevelopmentsBUSINESS RESEARCH REPROT14HOWTOINCREASETHEEFFICENCYOFPAKISTANRAILWAYNew LinesIn 2006 it was announced that a railway line between Gwadar and Quettawill be builtand the Bostan-Zhob narrow-gauge railway line will beconverted into broad gauge in2007 at a cost of US$1.25 billion. Plans toincrease train speeds, install more lengths of double track and to convertthe countrys railways to standard gauge are also currentlyunder work.ElectrificationI n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l o n g o i n g e x p a n s i o n p l a n si n t o C e n t r a l A s i a a n d electrification of the entire PakistanRailways, estimated at a worth of about $2 billionover the next five years(from 2005 to 2010).High-SpeedRailIn 2008, Pakistan Railways announced a plan of the construction of a $1billion high-speed railway line between Punjab and Sindh.InternationalLinesChinaEstablishing direct rail connections with China were announced by PervezMusharraf in2006.TurkeyBUSINESS RESEARCH REPROT15HOWTOINCREASETHEEFFICENCYOFPAKISTANRAILWAYIranIn spring 2009, a rail link between Quetta and Zahedan was constructedand allowedPakistan Railways direct access to Europe and the MiddleEast. The gauge changingstation was constructed to the standard gauge atZahedan and the Turkish Lake Van trainferry (soon to be bypassed) and the
  9. 9. Marmaray Tunnel under the Bosphorus. It is plannedto run container trains andthrough passenger trains. Pakistan plans to convert the Quettaline to standardgauge eventually.IntroductionPakistan Railways have run losses since the mid seventies. Thesepersistent losses haveassumed a chronic stature and continue to erodeorganisational assets, efficiency andmorale. A vicious cycle hasresulted wherein organizational problems, includingstructural andlegal status, create the loss and the financial deficit further addstoinefficiency. Over the last twenty years a numb er of studieshave been conducted toimprove the state of affairs but these have not beeneffectively implemented. The Boardhas undergone various transformationsand there has been an increase in centralization.This has added to theconfusion while the decline of Railways continues.The generation of railwaymenwho had seen better days of Pakistan Railways have either retired or will do soin the near future. For most employees of Pakistan Railways lossesanddeterioration constitute an immutable reality. Faith in change andimprovementhardly exists. Revival of an organization that has resigned to adeficit and failure poses achallenge for the country‟s political leadership aswell as its management. However,reversal has to be pursued. There has to be„organizational turnaround‟.This report highlights key factors necessary foreventual turnaround but does not go intodetails of the entire organizationalstructure in its recommendations. However, it focuseson the design and role of theapex structure. The size of the organization and the chronicnature of decline thathas persisted for thirty years call for the reversal process to beBUSINESSRESEARCH REPROT4StrengthIntroduction of New TrainsPakistan Railways introduced new long leadmail & express trains between major terminal of Pakistan Railwaysduring 2003-2004 and 2004-2005.Sialkot Express between Rawalpindi – SialkotJaffar Express between Rawalpindi – QuettaIslamabad Express between Lahore – RawalpindiMillat Express between Faisalabad – KarachiPakistan Railways connected Kasur, Pakpattan, and Lodhran withKarachi by FareedE x p r e s s t r a i n . H a v e l i a n c o n n e c t e d wi t h
  10. 10. K a r a c h i v i a R a w a l p i n d i , S a r g o d h a , a n d Faisalabad. Kohatconnected with Karachi by Awam Express. Pakistan Railwayshasintroduced non-stop Islamabad Express between Lahore - Rawalpindi andMillatExpressTrain between Faisalabd - Karachi with Modern Chinese PassengerCoaches. The journeytime has been reduced to 3hrs & 30 minuets betweenLahore - Rawalpindi and 13hrs 30minutes between Faisalabad Karachi.What we have done so far. Mafias eliminated inPurchases. Theft andpilferage brought down to bare minimum. Outhouses ofRailwayBungalows allotted to employees resulting in saving of HouseRent of such employees.Railway Housing Societies dissociated from Railwaythereby reducing the Electricity andGas expenditure. Privatization ofRawalpindi and Karachi Hospitals.20,000 ghost pensioners eliminated.WeaknessPakistan Railway has no Comport at all. People feel very difficulty while theyareusing Pakistan railway service but they get very tied due to uncomfortable seats.I t c o n s u me mo r e t i me o f t h e i r c u s t o me r s . Th e p e o p l e c a n n o tr e a c h t h e i r destination on time. So it is the wastage of time.· . Train is always overloaded with the bundle of people and Customerfeel verydifficult to take their seats. With the rush of people, thecustomer‟s dress getsdirty.There is no proper check of tickets in Trains. Most of the time the 2 personsclaimof their seats because they have same seat numbers.The staff of Pakistan Railway is In-efficient that‟s they give the ticketsof sameseat to the 2 customers.
  11. 11. References:1.Daily Times website, Tuesday September 16, 2008 2.„NationalTransport Policy‟, The Chartered Institute of Logistics andTransportPakistan (CILT), October 20083.Pakistan Railways AnnualBook 20084.„Central Superior Services Pakistan‟ , Blog by Dr. FarrukhMalik 5.„Lending for Railways; Pakistan‟, The World Bank website,20016.„Year Book 2006-2007‟, Ministry of Railways- Government ofPakistan7.Encyclopedia II – Indian Railways History,see:http://www.experiencefestival.com/a/Indian_Railways_-_History/id/15014878.“TowardsanOrganizationalTurnaroundStructuralAnalysisofPakistan Railways”Study conducted for Pakistan Railways Advisory and ConsultancyServices(PRACS)Prepared by JavedHasanAlyAbdus Sami KhanSheherbanoBurkiFaizaGhaffarKhan9 . Vi e ws f r o m t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c 10.Economic survey of Pakistan2008-09BUSINESS RESEARCH REPROT62HOWTOINCREASETHEEFFICENCYOFPAKISTANRAILWAY11.The Chronology of Pakistan RailwaysByOwaisMughalowaism1971@yahoo.com(Last Updated: March 03, 2007)12.Picturespage at PRACS web site:http://www.pracsltd.com.pk 13.History page PakistanRailway web site:http://www/pakrail.com14.A research project in response to thegiven subject“overview and analysis of transport sector in Pakistan”By Dr. M.Awais15. Massive but targeted reforms are required to lift up the level ofperformance,credibility and image of the railwaysBy DrNomanAhmed16.Swot Analysis and Pest Analysis of PakistanRailwayhttp://allnotes.informe.com/forum/management-notes-f5/swot-analysis-and-pest-analysis-of-pakistan-railway-t7.html#p1617.Pakistan railway formwikipediahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PakistanRailway18."Mismanagement gripsPakistan Railways". Economic Review.FindArticles.com. 21 Dec,
  12. 12. 2009.http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb092/is_n5_v24/ai_n28626234/19.Hundred Years of Pakistan Railway by M.B.K. Malik BUSINESS RESEARCHREPROT63Situation of RailwaysIn the past, railway was no doubt a very important mode of travelling in our country. Trains provideda comfortable journey in reasonable fairs. It was the only accessible transportation for the generalpublic to travel far of places. Pakistan Railways was thriving and with the passage of time more andmore trains were launched reaching far fledged areas of the country. Even plans were made to launchmodern tube system. Moreover, it was an institution aiding the economy of the country. Butunfortunately the government completely neglected Pakistan Railways bringing it to the presentsituation.At present, Pakistan Railways has reached to a dilapidated condition. The famous trains serving foryears are no more there to take passengers to their destinations and we no more witness hustlebustle that the railway stations had in the past. This has also affected the living of railway employeesand people associated eg, shopkeepers and vendors selling at the railway stations or in trains.Different accessories such as lights and fans are removed from inside the bogies and if there are any,they are not in working condition. Coaching stock parked at the major railway stations are withoutbreak and many other important components and parts. Delayed timings departure and arrival alsocontinue to irk passengers. Poor condition of railway is not only troublesome for the passengers andgoods but a grave issue for the country’s defense also eg, in case of emergency how the troops andtanks will move with no efficient rail system.The government has announced special trains for the occasion of Eid. This is not enough to cater theneeds of people. System must be put in order and should be made reliable as it is the only mode oftransport for the general masses as they cannot afford huge fares of buses and air travelling. It is alsoan important factor for the integration of all the four provinces. The government should take promptaction for the betterment this important institution.
  13. 13. PR HistoryPakistan Railways provides an important mode of Transportation in the farthest corners of the countryand brings them closer for Business,sight seeing, pilgrimage and education. It has been a greatintegrating force and forms the life line of the country by catering to its needs for large scale movementof people and freight.The possibility of Karachi as a sea port was first noticed in the mid of 19th century and Sir Henry EdwardFrere who was appointed Commissioner of Sind after its annexation with Bombay in 1847 soughtpermission from Lord Dalhousie to begin survey of sea port. He also initiated the survey for Railway linein 1858 . It was proposed that a railway line from Karachi City to Kotri, steam navigation up the Indus/Chenab upto Multan and from there an other railway to Lahore and beyond be constructed.It was on 13th May,1861 that first railway line was opened for public traffic between Karachi City andKotri, the distance of 105 miles. The line between Karachi City and Keamari was opened on 16.6.1889.By1897 the line from Keamari to Kotri was doubled.The railway line from Peshawar to Karachi closely follows Alexander’s line of march through the HinduKush to the sea. Different sections on existing main line from Peshawar to Lahore and Multan and branchlines were constructed in the last quarter of 19th century and early years of 20th century.The 4 sections i.e.Scinde railways, Indian Flotilla company Punjab railway and Delhi railways working in asingle company were later on amalgamated into Scinde, Punjab & Delhi railways company and waspurchased by the Secretary of State for India in 1885 and in January, 1886 it was named North WesternState Railways which was later on renamed as North Western Railways.At the time of partition, North Western Railway’s 1847 route mile was transferred to India leaving routemiles 5048 to Pakistan. In 1954 The railway line was extended to Mardan and Charsada section and in1956 Jacababad-Kashmore 2’-6’’ line was converted into broad gauge. KotAdu-Kashmore line wasconstructed between 1969 to 1973 providing an alternate route from Karachi to up country.Problems Faced by Railways* Railways is suffering huge losses for maintaining un-remunerative lines. Losses onrailway’s operation need to be minimized by closing un-remunerative lines where strategicand other consideration do not warrant such services and where there is no potential forimprovement and fare rationalization.* Railways are operating at low rates. A flexible policy for rates and fare requires to beadopted whereby freight rates could be varied according to the type of commodities as wellas direction.* The industrial units of railways are running at a loss. The locomotive factory, sleeperfactories and the carriage factory as well as the other large manufacturing units of railwaysneed to be converted into autonomous corporations and subsequently privatized* The operational efficiency of the railways is very low. The overall efficiency of the railwaysrequires to be improved through better managerial and operational techniques. Suitablemeasures would need to be taken to enable the railways to operate as a commercial
  14. 14. enterprise, by charging fare on commercial lines, opening or closing certain lines and therationalization of staff.* The bulk of railways earnings are drawn from freight services which are not beingaccorded the priority they deserve. Good traffic need to be accorded higher priority in theassigning of locomotive power relative to passenger services, particularly on the branchlines.Railways and NLC need to coordinate their operation and also compete in their operations toeconomize on the inter – modal movement of goods traffic. The Railway should carry goodsin bulk in the plains, while NLC and private road transport should take over furtherdistribution from these points in to the hilly regions. This will help the railway to concentrateits resources of locomotives and wagons on the main line in the plains, after withdrawingthem from the hilly regions. This is in fact the best and most economical rail road mix forthe country.