XMPP – Extensible Messaging
and Presence Protocol
The base protocol used for XMPP is RFC 2779 (Instant
Messaging /Presence Protocol Requirements).
There are 2 drafts namely XMPP Core and XMPP Instant
Messaging currently on XMPP.
Presence and Instant MessagingPresence and Instant Messaging
• Presence – Presence is a means for finding, retrieving, and
subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g. "online" or
"offline") of other users.
• Instant Messaging – It is a means for sending small,
simple messages that are delivered immediately to online users.
XMPP Core OverviewXMPP Core Overview
• XMPP is an open protocol for streaming XML elements in
order to exchange messages and presence information in close to
• XMPP has been implemented via a typical client-server
architecture, wherein a client utilizing XMPP accesses a server
over a TCP socket.
Addressing SchemeAddressing Scheme
JID – Jabber Identifier.
(where "room" is the name of the chat room and "service" is
the hostname of the multi-user chat service)
(where "nick" is the occupant's room nickname)
(could be a server-side script or service )
• Domain Identifier –Domain Identifier –
– Only Required identifier of JID.
– Represents the n/w gateway or primary server to
which entities connect.
– Not always a server, can be service that is addressed
as a sub domain of a server.
• Node Identifier –Node Identifier –
– optional secondary identifier.
– represents a client or a chat room associated with a
multi-user chat service etc.
– is called a "bare JID" and is of the form
• Resource Identifier –Resource Identifier –
– optional tertiary identifier.
– represents a specific session, connection (e.g., a device
or location), or object (e.g., a participant in a multi-user
– typically defined by a client implementation.
XML Streams and StanzasXML Streams and Stanzas
container for the exchange of XML elements between
any two entities over a network.
The start and end of the XML stream is denoted by
<stream> tag and </ stream> tag.
An XML stream is unidirectional.
is a discrete semantic unit of structured information.
is at a depth=1 of the XML stream.
XML StanzasXML Stanzas
• Message Stanza
– include single messages,
– Types of messages are chat, error, group chat,
– Child elements are <subject/> and <body/>.
<subject>I implore you!</subject>
<body>Where are you, Romeo?</body>
– to express an entity's current availability status.
– Types of Presence are unavailable, subscribe etc.
– Child elements are <show/>, <status/>, <priority/>.
– is a request-response mechanism
– Types of IQ are get(request roaster), set(add item on roaster), result, error.
– Client requests current roster from server:
<iq type='get' id='roster_1'>
Stream Encryption & AuthenticationStream Encryption & Authentication
XMPP includes a method for securing the stream from tampering and
eavesdropping. This channel encryption method makes use of the
Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, along with a "STARTTLS“.
Step 1: Client initiates stream to server:
Step 2: Server responds by sending a stream tag to client:
Step 3: Server sends the STARTTLS extension to client along with
authentication mechanisms and any other stream features:
Step 4: Client sends the STARTTLS command to server:
Step 5: Server informs client to proceed:
Step 6: Client and server attempt to complete TLS negotiation over the
existing TCP connection.
Step 7: If TLS negotiation is successful, client initiates a new stream to
Step 8: Server responds by sending a stream header to client along with
any remaining negotiable stream features:
Step 9: Client selects an authentication mechanism:
Step 10: Server sends a base64-encoded challenge to client: The decoded challenge
Step 11: Client responds to the challenge: The decoded response is:
Step 12: Server informs client of successful authentication:
Step 13: Client initiates a new stream to server and the rest of the message
Order of LayersOrder of Layers
The order of layers in which protocols MUST be stacked is as follows:
The rationale for this order is that TCP is the base connection layer used
by all of the protocols. Stacked on top of TCP is TLS and is often provided at the
operating system layer, SASL is often provided at the application layer, and
XMPP is the application itself.
Summary of XMPP- IM
• Establishing a Session
• Exchanging Messages
• Exchanging Presence Information
• Managing One's Roster