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Xmpp presentation


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xmpp tutorial, what is xmpp,

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Xmpp presentation

  1. 1. XMPP – Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol
  2. 2. 2 XMPPXMPP The base protocol used for XMPP is RFC 2779 (Instant Messaging /Presence Protocol Requirements). There are 2 drafts namely XMPP Core and XMPP Instant Messaging currently on XMPP. Presence and Instant MessagingPresence and Instant Messaging • Presence – Presence is a means for finding, retrieving, and subscribing to changes in the presence information (e.g. "online" or "offline") of other users. • Instant Messaging – It is a means for sending small, simple messages that are delivered immediately to online users.
  3. 3. 3 Requirements of RFC 2779Requirements of RFC 2779 1.1. ScalabilityScalability 2.2. Access ControlAccess Control 3.3. Message Encryption & AuthenticationMessage Encryption & Authentication 4.4. Presence Lookup & NotificationPresence Lookup & Notification 5.5. Presence Caching & ReplicationPresence Caching & Replication 6.6. ReliabilityReliability 7.7. PerformancePerformance
  4. 4. 4 XMPP Core OverviewXMPP Core Overview • XMPP is an open protocol for streaming XML elements in order to exchange messages and presence information in close to real time. • XMPP has been implemented via a typical client-server architecture, wherein a client utilizing XMPP accesses a server over a TCP socket.
  5. 5. 5 Addressing SchemeAddressing Scheme JID – Jabber Identifier. format: [node@]domain[/resource] E.g. <room@service><room@service> (where "room" is the name of the chat room and "service" is the hostname of the multi-user chat service) <room@service/nick><room@service/nick> (where "nick" is the occupant's room nickname) <domain/resource><domain/resource> (could be a server-side script or service )
  6. 6. 6 • Domain Identifier –Domain Identifier – – Only Required identifier of JID. – Represents the n/w gateway or primary server to which entities connect. – Not always a server, can be service that is addressed as a sub domain of a server. • Node Identifier –Node Identifier – – optional secondary identifier. – represents a client or a chat room associated with a multi-user chat service etc. – is called a "bare JID" and is of the form <node@domain>.
  7. 7. 7 • Resource Identifier –Resource Identifier – – optional tertiary identifier. – represents a specific session, connection (e.g., a device or location), or object (e.g., a participant in a multi-user chat room). – typically defined by a client implementation.
  8. 8. 8 XML Streams and StanzasXML Streams and Stanzas  XML Streams  container for the exchange of XML elements between any two entities over a network.  The start and end of the XML stream is denoted by <stream> tag and </ stream> tag.  An XML stream is unidirectional.  XML Stanza  is a discrete semantic unit of structured information.  is at a depth=1 of the XML stream.
  9. 9. 9 XML StanzasXML Stanzas • Message Stanza – include single messages, – Types of messages are chat, error, group chat, headline, normal. – Child elements are <subject/> and <body/>. <message to='' from='' xml:lang='en'> <subject>I implore you!</subject> <subject xml:lang=‘en'> </subject> <body>Where are you, Romeo?</body> <body xml:lang=‘en'> </body> </message> <stream> <presence> <show/> </presence> <message to='foo'> <body/> </message> <iq to='bar'> <query/> </iq> </stream>
  10. 10. 10 •Presence Stanza – to express an entity's current availability status. – Types of Presence are unavailable, subscribe etc. – Child elements are <show/>, <status/>, <priority/>. <presence> <show>dnd</show> </presence> •IQ Stanza – is a request-response mechanism – Types of IQ are get(request roaster), set(add item on roaster), result, error. – Client requests current roster from server: <iq type='get' id='roster_1'> <query xmlns='jabber:iq:roster'/> </iq>
  11. 11. 11 A Basic Session:A Basic Session: C: <?xml version='1.0'?> <stream:stream to='shakespeare.lit' xmlns='jabber:client' xmlns:stream='' version='1.0'> S: <?xml version='1.0'?> <stream:stream from='shakespeare.lit' id='id_123456789' xmlns='jabber:client' xmlns:stream='‘ version='1.0'> ….authentication ... C: <message from='juliet@shakespeare.lit' to='romeo@shakespeare.lit' xml:lang='en'> C: <body>Hi Romeo</body> C: </message> S: <message from='romeo@shakespeare.lit' to='juliet@shakespeare.lit' xml:lang='en'> S: <body>Hi Juliet.</body> S: </message> C: </stream:stream> S: </stream:stream> ::
  12. 12. 12 Stream Encryption & AuthenticationStream Encryption & Authentication XMPP includes a method for securing the stream from tampering and eavesdropping. This channel encryption method makes use of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol, along with a "STARTTLS“. Example Step 1: Client initiates stream to server: <stream:stream xmlns='jabber:client' xmlns:stream='' to='' version='1.0'> Step 2: Server responds by sending a stream tag to client: <stream:stream xmlns='jabber:client' xmlns:stream='' id='12345678' from='' version='1.0'>
  13. 13. 13 Step 3: Server sends the STARTTLS extension to client along with authentication mechanisms and any other stream features: <stream:features> <starttls xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'> <required/> </starttls> <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'> <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism> <mechanism>PLAIN</mechanism> </mechanisms> </stream:features> Step 4: Client sends the STARTTLS command to server: <starttls xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/> Step 5: Server informs client to proceed: <proceed xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-tls'/> Step 6: Client and server attempt to complete TLS negotiation over the existing TCP connection. Step 7: If TLS negotiation is successful, client initiates a new stream to server: <stream:stream xmlns='jabber:client' xmlns:stream='' to='' version='1.0'>
  14. 14. 14 Step 8: Server responds by sending a stream header to client along with any remaining negotiable stream features: <stream:stream xmlns='jabber:client' xmlns:stream='' from='' id='12345678' version='1.0'> <stream:features> <mechanisms xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'> <mechanism>DIGEST-MD5</mechanism> <mechanism>PLAIN</mechanism> <mechanism>EXTERNAL</mechanism> </mechanisms> </stream:features> Step 9: Client selects an authentication mechanism: <auth xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl‘ mechanism='DIGEST-MD5'/> Step 10: Server sends a base64-encoded challenge to client: The decoded challenge is: nonce="gx0P01RRVoOfJVrIJ6aNkFlinh9nM/Up9dazVTFTq1c=", realm="",qop="auth,auth-int,auth-conf", cipher="rc4-40,rc4-56,rc4,des,3des",maxbuf=2048, charset=utf-8,algorithm=md5-sess
  15. 15. 15 Step 11: Client responds to the challenge: The decoded response is: username="juliet",realm="", authzid="", nonce="gx0P01RRVoOfJVrIJ6aNkFlinh9nM/Up9dazVTFTq1c=", cnonce="bdi7U/Duhd97ffXpS9mNhhK3ciY0FGO9xuqIlapBK4o=", nc=00000001,qop=auth-conf,cipher="rc4",maxbuf=2048, digest-uri="xmpp/", response=8e0ac6010833b1224fcc4742afbdb352 Step 12: Server informs client of successful authentication: <success xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:xmpp-sasl'/> Step 13: Client initiates a new stream to server and the rest of the message passing happens.
  16. 16. 16 Order of LayersOrder of Layers The order of layers in which protocols MUST be stacked is as follows: 1. TCP 2. TLS 3. SASL 4. XMPP The rationale for this order is that TCP is the base connection layer used by all of the protocols. Stacked on top of TCP is TLS and is often provided at the operating system layer, SASL is often provided at the application layer, and XMPP is the application itself.
  17. 17. 17 Summary of XMPP- IM • Establishing a Session • Exchanging Messages • Exchanging Presence Information • Managing One's Roster